Presentation on theme: "Unit XV – Colonization of the Americas A. Early Middle American Civilizations1-12 B. The Spanish Conquistadores 13 - 18 C. Other Colonization in America."— Presentation transcript:
Unit XV – Colonization of the Americas A. Early Middle American Civilizations1-12 B. The Spanish Conquistadores 13 - 18 C. Other Colonization in America 19 - 21 Copyright 2006; C. Pettinato, RCS High School, All Rights Reserved
1. Early Inhabitants of Mexico, Central, and South America A. The Olmecs - 1400-500BC – coastal east Mexico B. The Mayas – 300-900 – Yucatan Peninsula and north Central America C. The Aztecs – 1200-1500’s – central Mexican plateau D. The Incas – 1438-1500’s – Peru and western South America
3. The Olmecs A. Ceremonial pyramidal temples and rich tombs B. Society dominated by powerful priests and aristocrats C. No true cities but ceremonial centers D. Carved stone heads of LaVenta E. Calendar F. Carved inscriptions
4. The Mayans A. Accomplished farmers using raised fields and reverse irrigation systems. Maize, beans, squash, were their main crops. B. Built cities with huge pyramids and palaces – ex. Tikal C. Human and animal sacrifices, the bleeding of the kings, and the sacrifice of losing athletic teams D. Hieroglyphics and advances in astronomy, mathematics, many carvings recording history E. Trade with city states, mechanical stone clocks
7. The Aztecs A. Bands of nomadic people migrated into central Mexico from the north (1200’s). They were very warlike. B. They were hunters but also farmed, creating chinampas. C. Conquered many new areas in the 1400’s - population - 30,000,000 D. Built a highly organized empire
9. Aztecs (continued) E. Practiced massive human sacrifice F. One emperor was chosen by a council of nobles G. Defined social hierarchy H. Long distance trade along protected roads I. Continuous warfare J. Education
11. The Incas A. The Incan Empire covered a variety of different tribes up and down the west coast of South America B. Tribes; Chavin (850BC), Mochica (100), Nazca, and many others – conquered by Incas C. Incas came from the high Andes D. Pachacuti – founder, Sapa Inca E. king was divine – owning all land F. capital – Cuzco G. efficient government
12. Inca (continued) H. quipu – official records on knotted rope I. mountain roads, suspension bridges, runner relays, terrace farming, tunnels, extensive road system J. 700 varieties of sweet potato K. polytheistic religion L. sports, games, stone buildings, irrigation for terraces
14. The Spanish Conquistadores A. Hernando Cortes 1519 1. What civilization did Cortes conquer? 2. What was the name of the local leader and why did he loose? 3. What are the “3 G’s” Cortes was after? 4. Give examples of how he treated his captives:
15. The Spanish Conquistadores (cont.) B. Francisco Pizarro – 1532 1. What civilization did Pizarro conquer? 2. What was the name of the local leader and why did he loose? 3. What are the 3 G’s Pizarro was after? 4. What happened to the population of native Americans between 1519 and 1605 and why?
17. Christopher Columbus (cont.) A. sailed for Spain 1492 (King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella) B. looking for Japan and China C. landed in San Salvador thinking he was in the East Indies D. claimed Caribbean for Spain E. made 2 additional voyages, becoming Governor and Admiral of the Ocean Sea F. found 2 of the “3 G’s”
18. The Colombian Exchange A. What agricultural products were produced in the Americas? B. What agricultural products were produced in Europe? C. What was the Colombian Exchange? D. How did this benefit man in both America and Europe?
20. The True Conquistadores (cont.) A. Hernando Cortes 1. arrived in 1519 2. the death of Moctezuma 3. conquered Aztecs 4. military superiority 5. the building of Mexico City 6. the real killer 7. control of Mexico and Central and North America B. Francisco Pizarro 1. arrived in 1532 2. the civil war won by Athualpa 3. the capture of Athualpa 4. the death of the empire 5. control of western South America
21. Other Explorers and Their Discoveries A. Balboa 1513 – (Spain), The Pacific Ocean B. Ferdinand de Magellan – (Spain), 1 st to circumnavigate the globe C. Bartholomew Dias 1487-88, (Portugal), Africa D. Vasco da Gama 1497-99 (Portugal), India – rounded Cape of Good Hope E. John Cabot 1497 (England), North America (New Foundland) F. Jacques Cartier 1534-1535 (France), Quebec G. Henry Hudson 1609 (Netherlands), New York H. Pedro Cabral - Brazil
23. Exploration Summary A. The Spanish – sailed west seeking an all water route to Asia – claimed much of North and South America B. The Portuguese – sailed south and east claiming ports and colonies in Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, also Brazil C. The Dutch – sailed west and then east, first looking for the northwest passage claiming New York and some ports in Asia (East Indies-Japan) D. The French – sailed west claiming Quebec and central North America E. The English – sailed west claiming Canada and the States, then east
24. Important Terms A. Peninsulare B. Creole C. Mestizo D. Mulatto E. Columbian Ex. F. caravel G. circumnavigate H. magnetic compass I. astrolabe J. sextant K. cartographer L. Line of Demarcation M. Northwest passage N. quipu O. chinampas P. Prince Henry the Navigator Q. enconmienda
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