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GC Unit 6 The Age of Exploration. Motivations “Glory, God and Gold” (Marco Polo Travels) “Glory, God and Gold” (Marco Polo Travels) Gold:Spices (Cinnamon,

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Presentation on theme: "GC Unit 6 The Age of Exploration. Motivations “Glory, God and Gold” (Marco Polo Travels) “Glory, God and Gold” (Marco Polo Travels) Gold:Spices (Cinnamon,"— Presentation transcript:

1 GC Unit 6 The Age of Exploration

2 Motivations “Glory, God and Gold” (Marco Polo Travels) “Glory, God and Gold” (Marco Polo Travels) Gold:Spices (Cinnamon, Pepper, nutmeg, salt) Gold:Spices (Cinnamon, Pepper, nutmeg, salt) Demand had risen as population recovered Demand had risen as population recovered Need to cut out the middle men Need to cut out the middle men God: Chance to crusade against heathens and spread Roman Catholic faith God: Chance to crusade against heathens and spread Roman Catholic faith Glory: Renaissance spirit of inquiry Glory: Renaissance spirit of inquiry

3 Medieval Trade Routes

4 Portuguese are the first Led by Prince Henry Led by Prince Henry Redesigned ships, made maps, trained sailors Redesigned ships, made maps, trained sailors Bartholomeu Dias: Southern most tip of Africa (1488) Bartholomeu Dias: Southern most tip of Africa (1488) Vasco da Gama: First to reach India; established trading in India (1498) Vasco da Gama: First to reach India; established trading in India (1498)

5 Innovation and Invention Maps (Cartography) Maps (Cartography) Prince Henry the Navigator (Sagres) Prince Henry the Navigator (Sagres) The Astrolabe (latitude) and Compass The Astrolabe (latitude) and Compass Better vessels called Caravels Better vessels called Caravels triangle sails, fixed rudders, wider hulls triangle sails, fixed rudders, wider hulls Better cannons Better cannons

6 Christopher Columbus Spain wants in on trade profits Spain wants in on trade profits Sail West to get East Sail West to get East 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella give him 3 ships 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella give him 3 ships Depart Aug 3 rd Depart Aug 3 rd Scurvy, misery Scurvy, misery Arrive at San Salvador October 12 th 1492 Arrive at San Salvador October 12 th 1492

7 Dividing the World Fought over by Spain & Portugal Fought over by Spain & Portugal The issue was settled by Pope Alexander VI who drew a Line of Demarcation to separate Spanish land from Portuguese land The issue was settled by Pope Alexander VI who drew a Line of Demarcation to separate Spanish land from Portuguese land Later the Treaty of Tordsillas Later the Treaty of Tordsillas Port. Get Brazil Port. Get Brazil Cabral 1500 Cabral 1500

8 Later Spanish Explorers Amerigo Vespucci (1507) Amerigo Vespucci (1507) Vasco Nunez De Balboa (1513) Vasco Nunez De Balboa (1513) Pacific Ocean Pacific Ocean Juan Ponce De Leon Juan Ponce De Leon Florida/Fountain of Youth Florida/Fountain of Youth Francisco De Coronado (1540) Francisco De Coronado (1540) 7 cities of Gold/Grand Canyon 7 cities of Gold/Grand Canyon Hernando De Soto (1541) Hernando De Soto (1541) Mississippi River Mississippi River

9 Ferdinand Magellan September 1519 set out for a 2 year voyage to circumnavigate September 1519 set out for a 2 year voyage to circumnavigate Portuguese but working for Spain Portuguese but working for Spain 5 ships 285 men 5 ships 285 men November ships enter the Strait of Magellan and sail into the Pacific Ocean November ships enter the Strait of Magellan and sail into the Pacific Ocean March 1521 reach the Philippines March 1521 reach the Philippines Magellan killed Magellan killed September 8 th men and 1 ship return home September 8 th men and 1 ship return home

10 The Northwest Passage 1497 John Cabot sent by Henry VIII to look for a way over N. America to the East 1497 John Cabot sent by Henry VIII to look for a way over N. America to the East Newfoundland Newfoundland 1535 Jacques Cartier and Samuel De Champlain (France) 1535 Jacques Cartier and Samuel De Champlain (France) Henry Hudson Henry Hudson 1609 had claimed New Amsterdam for the Dutch 1609 had claimed New Amsterdam for the Dutch

11 English, French and Dutch Explorers ExplorerDateCountryDiscovery John Cabot 1497England New England Coast (Grand banks) Jacques Cartier 1534France St. Lawrence River Samuel De Champlain 1603France Founded Quebec Henry Hudson 1609EnglandNetherlands Hudson Bay New York

12 Conquistadors Spanish conquistadors (conquers) attacked the natives in the Caribbean Spanish conquistadors (conquers) attacked the natives in the Caribbean Found enormous amounts of Gold and silver Found enormous amounts of Gold and silver Forced the natives to convert to Christianity and work for them Forced the natives to convert to Christianity and work for them Hernan Cortes defeated the Aztecs (Montezuma) in Mexico Hernan Cortes defeated the Aztecs (Montezuma) in Mexico Francisco Pizarro defeated the Incas (Atahualpa) in Peru Francisco Pizarro defeated the Incas (Atahualpa) in Peru

13 The Spanish Model of Colonization Policies Policies Viceroys (royal governors provide tight control) Viceroys (royal governors provide tight control) No women except natives No women except natives Wealth based on exploitation of natives and then Africans (by 1542) Wealth based on exploitation of natives and then Africans (by 1542)

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