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September 18, 2013.  CAT Scan  PET Scan  MRI  Functional MRI.

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Presentation on theme: "September 18, 2013.  CAT Scan  PET Scan  MRI  Functional MRI."— Presentation transcript:

1 September 18, 2013

2  CAT Scan  PET Scan  MRI  Functional MRI

3  Removal or destruction of some part of the brain.  Frontal Lobotomy

4  Jellylike mass of fat and protein Jellylike mass  Weighs about 3 pounds (1/45 th of the body’s weight)  100 billion neurons make up the "gray matter”  Millions of dendrites and axons are the "white matter"

5 Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain Cerebral Cortex (part of forebrain)

6  Brainstem  Oldest and innermost part  Where spinal cord enters brain (medulla)  Controls heartbeat, breathing, & blood pressure  Crossover point for nerves  Injury results in death

7  Cerebellum  Extends from back of brainstem (bottom rear of brain)  Means “little brain”  Involves coordination of voluntary movement  Coordinates fine muscle movements.  Habitual motor skills

8 PONS  Located just above the medulla.  Connects hindbrain with midbrain and forebrain.  Involved in facial expressions.

9  Coordinates simple movements with sensory information.  Most important structure in Midbrain is the Reticular Formation: controls arousal and ability to focus our attention. If Destroyed If stimulated

10  Thalamus  Located at top of brainstem  Sensory “switchboard” of brain  Receives sensory signals from the spinal cord and sends them to other parts of the forebrain.  Every sense except smell.

11  Limbic System  Border between older brain and two halves  Amygdala – aggression and fear Amygdala  Hypothalamus – hunger, thirst, body temperature, sex Hypothalamus  Hippocampus - memory

12  Involved in how we process memory with emotions.  Emotions connected to survival: anger, fear, disgust The emotion of anger has not changed much throughout evolution.

13  Maybe most important structure in the brain. Controls and regulates  Body temperature  Sexual Arousal  Hunger  Thirst  Endocrine System The most powerful structure in the brain.

14 Rat with an Implanted Electrode in pleasure center of Hypothalamus

15  Involved in the processing and storage of new memories.

16  … disrupt your ability to jump rope?  … disrupt your ability to hear sounds?  … leave you unable to move faster in a threatening situation?  … leave you unable to breathe?

17  What makes us human.  Largest part of the brain.  Made up of the Cerebral Cortex.

18  Layer of densely packed neurons “gray matter” and “glial cells”(glue), that support brain cells & cover the cerebral hemispheres.  Wrinkles are called fissures.  80% of brain’s weight  Divided into four regions  Frontal lobes  Parietal lobes  Occipital lobes  Temporal lobes


20  Abstract thought and emotional control.  Contains Motor Cortex: sends signals to our body controlling muscle movements.  Contains Broca’s Area: responsible for controlling muscles that produce speech.  Damage to Broca’s Area is called Broca’s Aphasia: unable to make movements to talk.

21  Contain Sensory Cortex: receives incoming touch sensations from rest of the body.  Most of the Parietal Lobes are made up of Association Areas. Where would this girl feel the most pain from her sunburn?

22  Deals with vision.  Contains Visual Cortex: interprets messages from our eyes into images we can understand.

23  Process sound sensed by our ears.  NOT LATERALIZED.  Contains Wernike's Area: interprets written and spoken speech.  Wernike's Aphasia: unable to understand language: the syntax and grammar jumbled.



26  Any area not associated with receiving sensory information or coordinating muscle movements.

27  MOTOR FUNCTIONS  Sends messages out to body  How do scientists know what it does? electrical stimulation of different parts neural prosthetics

28  SENSORY FUNCTIONS  Receives information from skin’s senses  More sensitive body regions have greater area of sensory cortex devoted to them

29 Motor and Sensory Cortexes

30  How do scientists know the functions of different parts of the brain?  “Old” methods phrenology  Brain damage case studies Example: Case of Phineas Gage Phineas Gage  Modern technology EEG, CT, MRI, PET

31 Phineas Gage Story  Personality changed after the accident. What does this tell us?  That different part of the brain control different aspects of who we are.


33 Specialization and Integration in Language

34 Divided into two hemispheres.  Contralateral control: right controls left and vice versa. In general, Left Hemisphere: logic and sequential tasks. Right Hemisphere: spatial and creative tasks.

35 Brain Activity when Hearing, Seeing, and Speaking Words

36  The idea that the brain, when damaged, will attempt to find news ways to reroute messages.  Children’s brains are more plastic than adults.

37 Divides the 2 hemispheres.

38 Those who suffer from epilepsy, have their corpus callosum severed partially.

39 Testing the Divided Brain

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