6“Older” Brain Structures-hindbrain BrainstemOldest and innermost partWhere spinal cord enters brain (medulla)Controls heartbeat, breathing, & blood pressureCrossover point for nervesInjury results in death
7Older Brain Structures, cont’d.-hindbrain CerebellumExtends from back of brainstem (bottom rear of brain)Means “little brain”Involves coordination of voluntary movementCoordinates fine muscle movements.Habitual motor skills
8Older Brain Structures, cont’d.-hindbrain PONSLocated just above the medulla.Connects hindbrain with midbrain and forebrain.Involved in facial expressions.
9Midbrain If stimulated If Destroyed Coordinates simple movements with sensory information.Most important structure in Midbrain is the Reticular Formation: controls arousal and ability to focus our attention.If Destroyed
10MIDBRAIN Cont’d Thalamus Located at top of brainstem Sensory “switchboard” of brainReceives sensory signals from the spinal cord and sends them to other parts of the forebrain.Every sense except smell.
11Midbrain cont’d Limbic System Border between older brain and two halvesAmygdala – aggression and fearHypothalamus – hunger, thirst, body temperature, sexHippocampus - memory
12Amygdala Involved in how we process memory with emotions. Emotions connected to survival: anger, fear, disgustThe emotion of anger has not changed much throughout evolution.
13Hypothalamus The most powerful structure in the brain. Maybe most important structure in the brain.Controls and regulatesBody temperatureSexual ArousalHungerThirstEndocrine SystemThe most powerful structure in the brain.
14Rat with an Implanted Electrode in pleasure center of Hypothalamus
15HippocampusInvolved in the processing and storage of new memories.
16In what brain region would brain DAMAGE BE MOST LIKELY TO … … disrupt your ability to jump rope?… disrupt your ability to hear sounds?… leave you unable to move faster in a threatening situation?… leave you unable to breathe?
17Forebrain 58-62 What makes us human. Largest part of the brain. Made up of the Cerebral Cortex.
18CEREBRAL CORTEXLayer of densely packed neurons “gray matter” and “glial cells”(glue), that support brain cells & cover the cerebral hemispheres.Wrinkles are called fissures.80% of brain’s weightDivided into four regionsFrontal lobesParietal lobesOccipital lobesTemporal lobes
20Frontal Lobes Abstract thought and emotional control. Contains Motor Cortex: sends signals to our body controlling muscle movements.Contains Broca’s Area: responsible for controlling muscles that produce speech.Damage to Broca’s Area is called Broca’s Aphasia: unable to make movements to talk.
21Parietal LobesContain Sensory Cortex: receives incoming touch sensations from rest of the body.Most of the Parietal Lobes are made up of Association Areas.Where would this girl feel the most pain from her sunburn?
22Occipital Lobes Deals with vision. Contains Visual Cortex: interprets messages from our eyes into images we can understand.
23Temporal Lobes Process sound sensed by our ears. NOT LATERALIZED. Contains Wernike's Area: interprets written and spoken speech.Wernike's Aphasia: unable to understand language: the syntax and grammar jumbled.
30LOCALIZATION OF BRAIN FUNCTION How do scientists know the functions of different parts of the brain?“Old” methodsphrenologyBrain damage case studiesExample: Case of Phineas GageModern technologyEEG, CT, MRI, PET
31Accidents Phineas Gage Story Personality changed after the accident. What does this tell us?That different part of the brain control different aspects of who we are.
34Hemispheres Divided into two hemispheres. Contralateral control: right controls left and vice versa.In general,Left Hemisphere: logic and sequential tasks.Right Hemisphere: spatial and creative tasks.
35Brain Activity when Hearing, Seeing, and Speaking Words
36Brain PlasticityThe idea that the brain, when damaged, will attempt to find news ways to reroute messages.Children’s brains are more plastic than adults.