Removal or destruction of some part of the brain. Frontal Lobotomy
Jellylike mass of fat and protein Jellylike mass Weighs about 3 pounds (1/45 th of the body’s weight) 100 billion neurons make up the "gray matter” Millions of dendrites and axons are the "white matter"
Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain Cerebral Cortex (part of forebrain)
Brainstem Oldest and innermost part Where spinal cord enters brain (medulla) Controls heartbeat, breathing, & blood pressure Crossover point for nerves Injury results in death
Cerebellum Extends from back of brainstem (bottom rear of brain) Means “little brain” Involves coordination of voluntary movement Coordinates fine muscle movements. Habitual motor skills
PONS Located just above the medulla. Connects hindbrain with midbrain and forebrain. Involved in facial expressions.
Coordinates simple movements with sensory information. Most important structure in Midbrain is the Reticular Formation: controls arousal and ability to focus our attention. If Destroyed If stimulated
Thalamus Located at top of brainstem Sensory “switchboard” of brain Receives sensory signals from the spinal cord and sends them to other parts of the forebrain. Every sense except smell.
Limbic System Border between older brain and two halves Amygdala – aggression and fear Amygdala Hypothalamus – hunger, thirst, body temperature, sex Hypothalamus Hippocampus - memory
Involved in how we process memory with emotions. Emotions connected to survival: anger, fear, disgust The emotion of anger has not changed much throughout evolution.
Maybe most important structure in the brain. Controls and regulates Body temperature Sexual Arousal Hunger Thirst Endocrine System The most powerful structure in the brain.
Rat with an Implanted Electrode in pleasure center of Hypothalamus
Involved in the processing and storage of new memories.
… disrupt your ability to jump rope? … disrupt your ability to hear sounds? … leave you unable to move faster in a threatening situation? … leave you unable to breathe?
What makes us human. Largest part of the brain. Made up of the Cerebral Cortex.
Layer of densely packed neurons “gray matter” and “glial cells”(glue), that support brain cells & cover the cerebral hemispheres. Wrinkles are called fissures. 80% of brain’s weight Divided into four regions Frontal lobes Parietal lobes Occipital lobes Temporal lobes
Abstract thought and emotional control. Contains Motor Cortex: sends signals to our body controlling muscle movements. Contains Broca’s Area: responsible for controlling muscles that produce speech. Damage to Broca’s Area is called Broca’s Aphasia: unable to make movements to talk.
Contain Sensory Cortex: receives incoming touch sensations from rest of the body. Most of the Parietal Lobes are made up of Association Areas. Where would this girl feel the most pain from her sunburn?
Deals with vision. Contains Visual Cortex: interprets messages from our eyes into images we can understand.
Process sound sensed by our ears. NOT LATERALIZED. Contains Wernike's Area: interprets written and spoken speech. Wernike's Aphasia: unable to understand language: the syntax and grammar jumbled.
How do scientists know the functions of different parts of the brain? “Old” methods phrenology Brain damage case studies Example: Case of Phineas Gage Phineas Gage Modern technology EEG, CT, MRI, PET
Phineas Gage Story Personality changed after the accident. What does this tell us? That different part of the brain control different aspects of who we are.