2 The Three BrainsHindbrain – Found at the rear base of the brain & involved in the basic processes of life.Responsible for automatic and survival functionsThree PartsMedullaPonsCerebellum
3 The Three BrainsMidbrain – Located just above the hindbrain and relays sensory information (vision & hearing) upward.Contains the Reticular Activating SystemForebrain – Located at the front of the brain and controls complex emotions, thoughts, and movements.Most highly developed portion of the brain4 PartsThalamus, Hypothalamus, Cerebrum, & Limbic System
5 HindbrainMedulla – controls breathing, heart rate, swallowing, digestion – vital life functionsPons – Involved in regulating body movement, attention, sleep, alertness, and facial expressions.Cerebellum – Involved in balance and coordination.Effected by alcohol (DUI test)
8 MidbrainReticular Activating System (RAS) – Stretches from the hindbrain through the midbrain into the lower part of the forebrain.The “ignition” system of the brainCoordinates basic sensory information involving attention, sleep, & arousal (heart rate/blood pressure)Damage to the RAS can result in a permanent coma.“Adapts” to sounds (ex. Sounds in the city)Alcohol reduces activity
10 Forebrain Thalamus – Relay station for sensory stimulation Sorts & sends messages from the sense organs to the cerebral cortex for interpretation.Hypothalamus – regulates vital functions – body temperature (homeostasis), storage of nutrients, motivation, and emotionHunger, thirst, sexual behavior, caring for offspring and aggression are regulated.Controls the release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
11 Forebrain Cerebrum – 70% of the brain’s weight Receives sensory informationTransmits voluntary (conscious) motor informationCerebral Cortex – the thinking center of the brainWrinkled surface of the brainInvolved in memory, language, emotions, complex motor functions, perception, etc.Corpus Callosum – Connects the two brain hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
12 ForebrainLimbic System – Located in the core of the forebrain on the inner edge of the cerebrumInvolved in learning & memory, emotion, hunger, sex & aggressionTwo Structures:AmygdalaMemory during emotional eventsFear & AggressionHippocampusMemory Formation
14 Brain Lobes Occipital Lobe (Back Of The Brain) Main center for visual processingEnables experiencing shapes, color, and motion.Damage can cause blindnessParietal Lobes (Top & Rear)Involved in touch sensation (integrates sensory systems)Touch, Temperature, & PressureDamage can destroy sense of touch
15 Brain Lobes Temporal Lobe (Side, Behind Ears) Hearing/Auditory Area Wernicke’s AreaInvolves the understanding of written & spoken languageDamage results in difficulty understanding written/spoken languageCan speak quickly & easily but speech often makes no senseBroca’s AreaInvolves the production of speechDamage involves difficulty speakingDamage to areas causes “aphasia”Trouble understanding/Producing Language
19 Cerebral HemispheresCorpus Callosum – Collection of nerve bundles that carries messages between the two hemispheresEach hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body.Ex. Left hemisphere controls right side of the body
20 Cerebral HemispheresLateralization – Specialization of a hemisphere in a particular functionLeft Hemisphere – Generally handles verbal processing, language, speech, reading & writingRight Hemisphere – Generally handles nonverbal processing, spatial relations, music, and visualsPeople often thought of as “right or left-brained”MisconceptionPrimary sensory & motor areas are symmetrical.Broca’s & Wernick’s area for language in the left hemisphere. Why left hemisphere is language dominant.
23 Split Brain PatientsPatients who suffer from severe epileptic seizures have their corpus callosum severedEpileptic Seizures – Bursts of abnormal neuron firings that generally occur in one hemisphere and then spread to the otherSubtle effects on brain functionsEx. Able to describe verbally an object in their left hand but not in their right hand.Which object do you think the person will be able to recognize verbally?
25 Accidents Phineas Gage 3.5 foot rod shot through his skull Survived but extreme personality changeShows that certain parts of the brain control certain aspects of our personality
26 Studying The Brain Computerized axial tomography (CAT Scan) X-rays beam around the head (3D view)Pinpoints injuries and brain deterioration
27 Studying The Brain Position Emission Topography (PET Scan) Can see which areas of the brain are activated when performing tasksA radioactive solution is injected into the bodyShows activity vs snapshot
28 Studying The Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Can see structures in detail, hard to see areasMagnetic fields and radio wavesMore powerful than CAT scan, “slice images”
29 Studying The Brain Electroencephalograph (EEG) Measures electrical activity of brain using small electrodes pasted to you scalpThe rhythmical patterns produced are “brain waves”
30 Brain Lobes Frontal Lobe (behind forehead) Executive Center – Higher Mental ProcessesPlanning, Social Skills, Emotional Control, Problem Solving & Abstract ThinkingMotor Skills - Involved in the coordination of movementCorrect notes for students. In the initial powerpoint Frontal Lobe was labeled as “Forebrain”.