13 Types of Neurons Sensory Neurons – Afferent Neurons Interneurons Carry the message from the sense organs to the CNSInterneuronsMake up the CNSMotor Neurons – Efferent NeuronsCarry the message from the CNS to the muscles or glandsRemember – SAME (sensory = afferent, motor = efferent)
14 The BrainGray matter – areas of the CNS with high concentrations of cell bodies; outer surface of cerebrum (cerebral cortex)White matter – areas of the CNS with mostly myelinated axons; inner part of cerebrumGlial cells – cells in the brain that nourish and protect neurons
15 Brain StemMedulla – where spinal cord meets the skull; controls heartbeat and breathingPons – above the medulla, this also controls involuntary functions.Reticular formation– bundle of nerves running through the brainstem; controls arousal; filters irrelevant background information from senses; modulates pain.
16 ThalamusThalamusPair of egg-shaped organs above the brainstem; receives information from the senses (EXCEPT FOR SMELL) and relays it to the rest of the brain.
17 Cerebellum Controls balance and coordination In the rear of the head, behind the brainstem
18 Limbic SystemAmygdala – two almond shaped structures; influence fear and aggression (monkeys and cats)Hypothalamus – below the thalamus; regulates hunger, thirst, body temp, sex, fight-or-flight; triggers the pituitary (the “master gland”); reward centerOlds and Milner Video (6:02-7:54)Hippocampus – behind the amygdala; memory
19 Cerebral CortexControls information processing; wrinkled to increase surface areaComposed of 8 lobes (4 on each side)
20 Frontal Lobes Located in the forehead region Includes the motor cortex (part of brain that controls voluntary movement)Includes Broca’s area (needed for forming words; located in left hemisphere only)Broca’s aphasiaAssociation areas in this region – judgment, planning, processing new memories
22 Parietal Lobes Located on the top and rear of head Contains the sensory cortex (part of brain that registers and processes tactile information (phantom limb)Contains the angular gyrus (left hemisphere only) which is involved in converting written words into sound
24 Occipital Lobes Located in the back of the head Contains the visual cortex
25 Temporal Lobes Located on the sides of head, above ears Receives and processes auditory informationIncludes Wernicke’s area (left hemisphere only) - part of brain involved in understanding languageWernicke’s aphasia
26 Corpus Callosumbundle of nerves connecting the left and right hemispheres