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Brain Notes.

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Presentation on theme: "Brain Notes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Brain Notes



4 Tools for Viewing Brain Structure and Activity
EEG Electroencephalogram measures electrical currents across the brain Measure brain activity

5 Infant scientist – Noah, age 9 mo.

6 Tools for Viewing Brain Structure and Activity
CT scan Also called a CAT scan Computerized axial tomography X-ray of brain tissue Shows brain structure

7 Tools for Viewing Brain Structure and Activity
PET scan Positron Emissions Tomography Patients drinks radioactive glucose and image shows areas of brain activity.

8 Tools for Viewing Brain Structure and Activity
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging Exposes brain to magnetic field Shows brain structure

9 Tools for Viewing Brain Structure and Activity
fMRI functional MRI Uses magnetic field Not harmful Shows brain structure and activity


11 Organization of the Nervous System

12 Autonomic Nervous System

13 Types of Neurons Sensory Neurons – Afferent Neurons Interneurons
Carry the message from the sense organs to the CNS Interneurons Make up the CNS Motor Neurons – Efferent Neurons Carry the message from the CNS to the muscles or glands Remember – SAME (sensory = afferent, motor = efferent)

14 The Brain Gray matter – areas of the CNS with high concentrations of cell bodies; outer surface of cerebrum (cerebral cortex) White matter – areas of the CNS with mostly myelinated axons; inner part of cerebrum Glial cells – cells in the brain that nourish and protect neurons

15 Brain Stem Medulla – where spinal cord meets the skull; controls heartbeat and breathing Pons – above the medulla, this also controls involuntary functions. Reticular formation– bundle of nerves running through the brainstem; controls arousal; filters irrelevant background information from senses; modulates pain.

16 Thalamus Thalamus Pair of egg-shaped organs above the brainstem; receives information from the senses (EXCEPT FOR SMELL) and relays it to the rest of the brain.

17 Cerebellum Controls balance and coordination
In the rear of the head, behind the brainstem

18 Limbic System Amygdala – two almond shaped structures; influence fear and aggression (monkeys and cats) Hypothalamus – below the thalamus; regulates hunger, thirst, body temp, sex, fight-or-flight; triggers the pituitary (the “master gland”); reward center Olds and Milner Video (6:02-7:54) Hippocampus – behind the amygdala; memory

19 Cerebral Cortex Controls information processing; wrinkled to increase surface area Composed of 8 lobes (4 on each side)

20 Frontal Lobes Located in the forehead region
Includes the motor cortex (part of brain that controls voluntary movement) Includes Broca’s area (needed for forming words; located in left hemisphere only) Broca’s aphasia Association areas in this region – judgment, planning, processing new memories


22 Parietal Lobes Located on the top and rear of head
Contains the sensory cortex (part of brain that registers and processes tactile information (phantom limb) Contains the angular gyrus (left hemisphere only) which is involved in converting written words into sound


24 Occipital Lobes Located in the back of the head
Contains the visual cortex

25 Temporal Lobes Located on the sides of head, above ears
Receives and processes auditory information Includes Wernicke’s area (left hemisphere only) - part of brain involved in understanding language Wernicke’s aphasia

26 Corpus Callosum bundle of nerves connecting the left and right hemispheres

27 Name that brain part

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