Objectives… Define Fascism Describe how the fascist governments rose to power in Italy & Germany.
Fascism A system of government characterized by a dictator, nationalism and militarism. Fasces A Latin word referring to a bundle of sticks bound to the handle of an axe.
The characteristics of Fascism… Look back in history to their past greatness No criticism of the government...Censorship Schools teach fascism The individual exists to serve the state Conflict …“War is the most noble goal of man”- Hitler
Benito Mussolini Mussolini’s rise to power… Uses violence & murder Appeals to people fearing Communism…“rabidly nationalistic” Becomes “Il Duce”… Promises Italian greatness Suspends elections Builds a modern military
Italy - Benito Mussolini - “Il Duce” Mussolini Quotes… “All within the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state.” “Democracy is beautiful in theory; in practice it is a fallacy.” “Fascism is a religion. The twentieth century will be known in history as the century of Fascism. ”
Hitler’s background… Austrian born High school drop out Frustrated by failure as a young adult. WWI corporal Organizes the National Socialists Workers Party (1919)… 1923 jailed for attempted overthrow of the German government
Mein Kampf or “My Struggle” Describes… The “Master”/“Aryan Race” theory… The Final Solution… Lebensraum… Denounces… Democracy & communism Religion (Christianity & Judaism) The Treaty of Versailles
Hitler’s rise to power… German government is weak… Economic problems… The Nazi Party is formed Fear of Communists… Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany… The Reichstag burns… Hitler declares himself “Fuhrer”… The Reichstag Fire Jan. 30, 1933
“How fortunate for leaders that men do not think.” - A. Hitler The Third Reich The term “Third Reich” is used to describe Hitler’s Nazi regime in Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Hitler strengthens his power… “Scape - goating”… Censorship...book burning Assassination of his enemies Political meetings (Nuremberg Rallies) Propaganda
The Nuremberg Rally(s) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ilXVkgmJk2E http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ilXVkgmJk2E
German Propaganda Posters What messages are being conveyed?
Germany - Adolf Hitler - Der Fuhrer The most destructive leader in modern history. Hitler Quotes… “War is the most noble goal of man” “All propaganda has to be popular and has to accommodate itself to the comprehension of the least intelligent of those whom it seeks to reach.” “Any alliance whose purpose is not the intention to wage war is senseless and useless.” “Anyone who sees and paints a sky green and fields blue ought to be sterilized.”
3) Describe the policies & events exposing Hitler’s Germany as a racially & religiously intolerant regime. 1933: Concentration camps 1935: The Nuremberg Laws… 1938: Kristallnacht– “The Night of Broken Glass”…
The Nuremberg Laws Nazi Racial Legislation Laws designed to… - Purify Germany - Define citizenship - Define the position of Jews in the Third Reich.
1938: Kristallnacht - "Night of Broken Glass" Triggering event…Jewish teenager murders a German official in Paris 1,000 Synagogues burned, businesses, cemeteries, hospitals, schools & homes looted & destroyed… 30,000 arrested
Objective… Identify and explain the events that force America to move away from isolationism & into WW II.
1) Roosevelt’s primary concern during the 1930s?… 2) What were the worldwide economic & political ramifications of the Great Depression?…
Think… What have you previously learned that supports US commitment to this policy? What type of foreign policy did the US adopt after WW I? Rejection of The Treaty of Versailles The Kellogg-Briand Pact Washington Naval Conference
Why did Americans favor isolationism prior to the start of WW II?... 8) How did each of the following influence the isolationist thinking prior to the outbreak of the war? –All Quiet on the Western Front –Nye Committee –College students –Norman Thomas –America First
Examples of Isolationism prior to WW II… Rejected the Treaty of Versailles… The Washington Conference (1921-22)… Kellog-Briand Pact (1928)…
The message? Can you identify the year this cartoon was published?
1931-32 Japan invades Manchuria & Shanghai American Response: Diplomatic protest No Action 1935 Italy invades Ethiopia American Response: The Neutrality Acts are passed
The Neutrality Acts Designed to keep the US out of war… –1935: Banned war supplies –1935: Forbid travel on foreign ships –1936: Prohibited loans –1937: Included the Spanish CW –1939: “cash-and-carry”… –Replaced by “lend-lease” …
1936 Germany rearms & sends troops into the Rhineland American Response: No action
1936 The Rome-Berlin Axis… Supporting “parallel interests”
1937 Japan begins full scale invasion of China * WW II officially starts in Asia American Response: Diplomatic protest
1938 The Anschluss… Germany & Austria unite – 6M Austrians are under German control
1938: Hitler invades the Sudetenland. -Hitler charges that Czechs are “abusing Germans
1938:The Munich Pact or Appeasement Policy… Hitler meets with French & British Prime Ministers… Agrees not to take more territory British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain announces “Peace in our time”
1938 American Response FDR requests peaceful settlement U.S. funds a two ocean navy Signing the Two Ocean Navy Expansion Act
1939 - Germany invades Czechoslovakia & the Non Aggression Pact is signed… Agreement between Germany & Russia that they will not attack each other & will divide Poland between them.
1940 The Tripartite Pact Rome – Berlin –Tokyo Axis Japanese & Italian emissaries with Hitler.
1939: Germany Invades Poland Luftwaffe…. German air force …Very modern & powerful -The first casualty of the German- Soviet Non Aggression Pact
1940 Germany invades Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium & France WW II officially starts in Europe… - Blitzkrieg… - The Battle for Britain…
1939 Blitzkrieg… “LIGHTNING WAR” The name implies the rapid deployment of air power, mechanized cavalry and troops. – VERY FAST, VERY POWERFUL
1939 American Response: The Neutrality Acts are amended to “cash & carry”
1940 American Response: Selective Service Act… Destroyers for Bases Deal… Lend-Lease Plan… “It is like lending your neighbor whose house is burning a garden hose.”
1941 The invasion of the USSR (or Operation Barbarosa)…
Freedom From Fear Freedom of Speech Freedom From Want Freedom of Worship FDR: The Four Freedoms Speech…
1941 World Event: The Atlantic Charter… 13) The “common principles” that President Roosevelt & Prime Minister Churchill agreed to in the Atlantic Charter… Free trade among all nations No territorial seizures after the war Self determination Disarmament The four freedoms… Freedom from fear & want, freedom of speech & worship Most of the above are related to what previous topic?
Objective… Describe the U.S. response to the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Pearl Harbor Identify the diplomatic & military events in 1940- 41 that foreshadow war between Japan & the US…
1941 World Event: Dec. 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor is attacked American Response: Congress declares war Dec. 8, 1941
Pearl Harbor 15) Japan’s overall objective for Asia? 16) Japan’s military objective for the attack on Pearl Harbor?
Pearl Harbor From You Tube… Pearl Harbor Day Attack Documentary video clip: 8:45 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nt13c3olXkU Documentary video clip: 1:50 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VnlLRmy3BI0& feature=related
USS ARIZONA “I could see the men on Arizona walking on deck and burning alive. They had their helmets on. Their clothes were all seared off. They were a ghostly crew as they walked out of those flames. And then they just dropped dead”
Pearl Harbor From You Tube… Pearl Harbor Day Attack Documentary video clip: 8:45 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nt 13c3olXkU
FDR requests a declaration of war… "Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy - the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan." - Franklin Roosevelt, Dec. 8, 1941
A Global War - Dec. 11, 1941 Germany & Italy declare war on the U.S. Hitler declares war against the “half Judaized and the other half Negrified” America The U.S. acknowledges a state of war "...Every single man, woman, and child is partner in the most tremendous undertaking of our history." - FDR