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EUROPE - The Early Middle Ages

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1 EUROPE - The Early Middle Ages
EARLY MIDDLE AGES 501 to 1100 AD 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 Decline of Rome 576 476 Byzantine Empire 1473 Anglo-Saxon Britain 1066 Vikings 751 Carolingian Empire 843 The Normans 962 Holy Roman Empire (1806) Norman Britain c

2 EUROPE - The adventure of discovery
LINK The Decline of the Roman Empire – 200 to 476 165 AD, plague swept through Rome, decimating the population it lasted two years, and was followed from 180 AD by rule of mad Emperor Commodus there were uprisings in Britain & Africa and a series of poor and short-lived Emperors power shifted to the provinces the British & the Parthians in east caused trouble, and the barbarians (Franks, Goths, Alemanni & Vandals) were threatening; Rome had to abandon Hungary & Bavaria parts of Empire were splitting away: Britain, Gaul, Syria - the economy declined in 284, the Empire split into 2: the Greek-speaking east & the latin-speaking west the army was reorganized and taxes charged to pay for it Constantine ruled from 312 to 337; he favoured Christianity and moved the capital of Empire to Byzantium, renaming it Constantinople; this city became rich, while Rome declined Rome was sacked in 410 & 455, & last Emperor deposed by Goths in 476 various Germanic kingdoms replaced once-proud Rome

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The Roman Empire – the great division in 284 AD The western Empire declined and collapsed in 476 AD when the last Emperor was deposed by the Goths. The eastern part was renamed Byzantium and survived till taken over by the Ottoman Turks in 1453.

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The Latin Language amo I love amas you love amat he/she loves amamus we love amatis you love amant they love insula nominative (subject) insula you love insulam accusative (object) insulae genitive insulae dative insula ablative AMARE = to love INSULA = an island an amateur photographer (= lover of photography) an amorous look … I’m not enamoured of … an example of insular thought I live on a peninsular. (pen = almost) The machine is poorly insulated.

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The Latin Language – noun inflections insula nominative (subject) Insula bella est. insula you love O insula, te amo insulam accusative (object) Insulam amo insulae genitive Insulae dicit. insulae dative Historiam insulae amo insula ablative Puer insulae est. INSULA = an island .

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Language Sources The Origin of Western Languages some Latin sentences the Latin Language Latin proverbs Latin course for beginners Latin expressions used in English French words used in English the Anglo-Norman language I love you. Te amo. Je t’aime. Te quiero. Ti amo.

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Christianity Christianity has been fundamental to the history of Europe around time JC was born, many different sects in Roman Empire by 400 AD, Christianity was dominant Jews had long believed a Saviour would be born to lead them Jesus was born in Nazareth under Roman rule little known of early life, but in 27 AD he began preaching he told many parables and performed miracles of healing the Jewish authorites accused him of blasphemy the Romans under Pontius Pilate tried and crucified him he is believed to have come to life again after three days (the Resurrection)

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Jesus Christ - Preacher

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"The Last Supper" - by Leonardo da Vinci

10 EUROPE The Crucifixion of Jesus Christ by the Romans
The adventure of discovery

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Emperor Constantine Christians were persecuted for their faith many died cruelly in the Romans' amphitheatres the Emperor Constantine recognized Christianity in 313 AD he is said to have adopted the Christian symbol by painting it on his soldiers' shields before a successful battle thanks to him, Christianity became deeply rooted by the 5th century

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Who were The Celts? The Celts – 500 BC to 43 AD Neolithic Stones in 500 BC, Celts were dominant European power they had expanded from southern Germany not a nation, more a conferation of tribes with shared culture influence stretched from Spain to Britain, Germany and Northern Italy and as far as Anatolia they were tribal farmers gathered around their Chiefs’ strongholds they were bound together by the Druids; learned priests, lawmakers, bards & sages Celts also had artists, musicians & metalworkers they traded with Rome, Greece & other countries, but were not much influenced by them

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Who were The Celts? The Celts – 500 BC to 43 AD each Celt was a freeman with individual rights Druidic justice was famous and tribal bonds strong chiefs were elected by tribespeople, and high-kings by the Chiefs both could be deposed if not doing well they were fierce warriors; and used iron for weapons and tools in 390 BC they sacked Rome & in 280 BC they raided Greece & Anatolia they also fought amongst themselves; the Romans exploited this when invading Gaul (France) & Britain the British leader (Caractarus) was betrayed by other Celts disunited, the Celts lost their independence in 43 to 80 AD they later accepted Roman rule and fought for them against Germanic barbarians their culture lives on in Ireland, Brittany, Cornwall and parts of Wales & Scotland (The Celts & their languages - the Breton Language)

14 the Huns were fearsome warriors
the complex routes of the barbarians in the early part of the first millenium the Huns were fearsome warriors

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Celtic Peoples Today The Celts – Boudicea

16 A Celtic roundhouse cooking & washing took place around the central fire people slept around the inside of the wall

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The Barbarians – 1 AD to 150 BC 'barbarian' means 'outsider"; they lived in small farming communities and were ferocious Germans in South Sweden & North Germany moved south and pushed the Celts west The Romans tried to control the Germans and were badly beaten in 9 AD; they traded with some friendly tribes and recruited some into the army Franks, Alemanni & Goths raided the Empire in 260 to 270 AD - the Romans had to make peace and settle them

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The Huns the Huns (Xiongnu) were evicted from Mongolia by the Chinese they swept into Europe, settling in Hungary the German tribes panicked, pushing deeper into the Roman Empire for safety the Romans settled many, but the Vandals in Greece rebelled and sacked Rome in 410 AD, the year that Rome left Britain from 440 to 450 AD, the Huns ravaged Greece, Gaul & Germany, destroying everything an alliance of Germans & Romans finally defeated them, but the Empire was now weak when Attila the Hun attacked Northern Italy, the Western Roman Empire finally collapsed

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Attila the Hun

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The Anglo-Saxons – 600 to 1066 AD Roman withdrawal from Britain in 410 led to revival of original ‘Celts’ then Angles, Saxons & Jutes arrived in Britain in 5th & 6th centuries they gained a foothold in southeast, but were resisted from 500 to by King Arthur & his Knights of the Round Table after major battle in 552, Saxons took over south & central England following their invading countrymen, others came from the mainland British towns, villages & farms were abandoned ancient Britons fled to Wales, Ireland, Scotland, Brittany & NW Spain (Galicia)

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Europe to 1100 AD this period is often known as "the Dark Ages" Byzantine Empire (eastern part of original Roman Empire) acted as a stable focus for hristendom, but its fortunes ebbed and flowed in 8th century, Muslims invaded Spain, setting up an advanced culture there that lasted 700 years In the north, the Franks established the first European Empire, but it declined in 9th century after Charlemagne's death nations everywhere slowly took shape, overseen by Catholic Church in Rome this was accelerated by threats from Magyars, Vikings and Muslims in Spain by 1100 some European nations were strong and prosperous universities were founded, church-building flourished, towns grew in size and importance medieval leaders started overseas military adventures, e.g. the Crusades

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The Anglo-Saxons – 600 to 1066 AD the Christian church went with the fleeing Britons the ‘Germans’ brought new farming and ownership methods gradually seven kingdoms emerged, which often fought each other eventually England was united under Egbert of Wessex in 829 789, first Vikings appeared by 1850, they had started to settle, but there began battles with the Anglo-Saxons for some time England was ruled by the Danes, but in 1066 William the Conqueror arrived with the Normans, and took over the country

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The Anglo-Saxons – 600 to 1066 AD Thanes (nobles) Churls (freemen) Serfs (slaves) There were three classes in Anglo-Saxon society: Here they are harvesting barley under supervision

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The Carolingians to 843 Germanic tribe the Franks founded Europe's first rich & powerful Empire settled in Belgium & Northern France Merovingian leader Clovis ( ) established capital in Paris Clovis became a Christian and earned Rome's support united the Frankish tribes, defeated the Gauls, the Allemanni and the Visigoths created a kingdom resembling today's France sons consolidated this, but quarrelled; power came to Charles Martell Charles Martell defeated the Muslims at Poitiers in 732 Charles founded the Carolingian dynasty; in 751 Charles Martell's son, Pépin, replaced Merovingians as first Frankish leader Pepin's son, Charlemagne became King conquered all of France, then Germany, Italy & the Netherlands quelled Saxons & Avars in Central Europe, forcing them to adopt Christianity

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The Carolingians to 843 Charlemagne supported the Catholic Church in return, the Pope crowned him "Holy Roman Emperor" in 800 Charlemagne was a lawmaker and founded schools, cathedrals & monasteries he invited scholars, scribes, architects & philosophers to his court his capital at Aachen in Germany became chief centre of learning in western Christendom he died in 814; on death of his successor, Louis the Pious, the Empire split into three parts, each going to one of his sons the remains of the Empire eventually became France & Germany Carolingians ruled Germany until 911 and France until 987

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The Carolingians to 843 Charlemagne's descendants ruled France until 987, when Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, was crowned King of France. His descendants, starting with the Capetian dynasty, ruled France until 1792, when the French Revolution established a Republic, in a period of increasingly radical change that began in 1789.

27 The Carolingians to 843 RIGHT: The Carolingian Renaissance inspired this ivory carving of St Gregory & other scholars at work - the Aachen scholars created a new script called minuscule, but Charlemagne never learned to write.

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The Carolingians to 843 Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor in 800 AD Holy Roman Emperors were crowned in the Palatine Chapel, Aachen

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BBC The Vikings – 600 to 1000 AD ‘pirates’ from Scandinavia, they ransacked Europe for over 200 years made excellent wooden ships with shallow draught began in 7th centre to raid coastal towns & monasteries later sailed up Rhine, Loire & Seine & took over Baltic Sea as Normans, invaded England in 1066 not all were warriors: some farmers looking for new land settled in Iceland, Greenland and many other countries by 1000 had settled down: Nordic homelands became Christian

30 Viking Voyages

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The Vikings – 600 to 1000 AD enormous impact on northern Europe established trading routes & towns founded Russia, influenced France, Holland, Poland, Britain & Ireland weakened Carolingian Empire descendents invaded England in 1066 and changed it forever also among leaders of the Crusades to protect themselves from Vikings, people had to rely on feudal lords they exchanged work and goods for their lords’ protection

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33 Viking Ship

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a Viking settlement

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LINK The Holy Roman Empire – 962 to 1440 founded by Charlemagne in 800; not really Roman or particularly holy German "Empire" concerned with power of kings & Popes after Charlemage’s death, Carolingian Empire gradually broke up Otto 1 crowned King of Germany 936: sought to revive Roman Empire crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope in 962 managed to unite the feuding nobles of Germany technically, the HRE lasted till 1806

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The Battle of Hastings The Normans – 1066 Normans were Danish overlords living in Normandy from 900 onwards they had absorbed Christian and Carolingian ideas; few in number, they were tough warriors after a dispute with Harold of England about who should have the English crown, William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066 Harold was defeated at Battle, near Hastings, and Willam the Conqueror was crowned in Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day, 1066 the Bayeux Tapestry was created to commemorate William’s victory many English continued to resist for several years, but rebellions were brutally crushed; William built many castles to subdue the land he took land from the English and gave it to foreign nobles who had supported him and to the Church to gain their favour the Normans in England kept their lands across the Channel, so English and "French" politics and history were inextricably mixed

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The Normans William’s biography

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Norman Castles The Normans the Normans built castles, monasteries and great cathedrals; many towns grew up around them the nobility spoke French; the natives English spoke old English central administration & tax were established a list of the country’s wealth was made in the Domesday Book Norman rule was harsh; they cared mainly about wealth & power they used England as a base for foreign adventures, but nevertheless England developed economically William died in 1087; he was succeeded by his two sons, but by disagreements arose about the succession A new Norman dynasty (the Plantagenets) was founded in 1154; their first King, Henry II, ruled England and half of France 1060, Normans also invaded Sicily & S Italy, supporting the Pope against the Byzantines & Arabs; in 13th century, they were prominent in the Crusades

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The feudal chain in the Middle Ages the Normans formed a feudal network very important in 13th century in feudalism, a long chain of people held land in return for services nobles & knights doing great service to the Crown were rewarded with large estates

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The Feudal system in the Middle Ages

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The Normans – 1066 the Norman invasion had a major effect on the development of ENGLISH In 1204 AD, King John lost the province of Normandy to the King of France; Norman nobles of England became ever more estranged from their French cousins England became the chief concern of the nobility, rather than their estates in France, so they adopted a modified English as their native tongue 150 years later, the Black Death ( ) killed over 30% of the English population; the laboUring and merchant classes grew in economic and social importance, and along with them English increased in importance compared to Anglo-Norman this mixture of the two languages came to be known as Middle English; the most famous example of Middle English is Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales" Middle English can be read, albeit with difficulty, by English-speaking people by 1362, the linguistic division between nobility and the commoners was largely over; in that year, the Statute of Pleading was adopted, making English the language of the courts and Parliament

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The Prologue from Geoffrey CHAUCER’s « Pardoner’s Tale » (1387) WHAN that Aprille with his shoures sote; The droghte of Marche hath perced to the rote And bathed every veyne in swich licour, Of which vertu engendred is the flour, Whan Zephirus eek with his swete breeth; Inspired hath in every bolt and heeth The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne Hath in the Ram his halfe cours y-ronne; And smale fowles maken melodye That slepen al the night with open y (So priketh hem nature in hir corages) Than longen folk to goon on pilgrimages. Chaucer – his life & works

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The Prologue from Geoffrey CHAUCER’s « Pardoner’s Tale » And palmers for to seken straunge strondes To ferne halwes, couthe in sondry londes"; And specially, from every shires ende is Of Engelond, to Caunterbury they wende, The holy blisful martir for to seke That hem hath holpen, whan that they were seke Bifel that, in that seson on a day, In Southwerk at the Tabard as I lay, Redy to wenden on my pilgrimage, To Caunterbury with ful devout corage. The development of English after Chaucer, from Middle English to Early Modern English William Shakespeare

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LINK The Crusades – 1095 to 1291 Palestine, once ruled by Byzantium, conquered by Muslims in 637 Christians still able to visit Holy Lands till 1095, when Seljuk Turks arrived 1095, Pope Urban II called on Christians to free Palestine many thousands heeded the call in all, 8 crusades took place, many complete failures saddest was the ‘Children’s Crusade’: 50,000 gathered in Marseille from France & Germany; once they left port, nothing was ever heard of them again; they are supposed to have starved to death or became slaves Richard I of England, Richard the Lionheart, led the third Crusade against the great Muslim leader Saladin More on "Children's Crusade"

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LINK Krak des Chevaliers in Syria The Crusaders built Norman style castles in Palestine & Syria. Krak des Chevaliers held 2,000 men was besieged by the Muslims in 1271, when they starved the Crusaders into surrender.

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LINK Richard the Lionheart ( ) The Myth of Robin Hood Richard led army of Knights to Holy Land in 1191 did not capture Jerusalem, but signed a five-year treaty with Saladin this allowed European pilgrims to visit the holy sites again returning to England, RLH was captured by Leopold of Austria and then by Henry IV, the Holy Roman Emperor, and ramsomed for one year, returning to England in 1194 he is buried at the Abbaye de Fontevrault near Tours, France

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The decisive Battle of Hattin against Saladin in 1187 Saladin tricked the Crusaders into climbing a hill on a very hot day. While the Crusaders roasted in their metal armour, Saladin surrounded and harried them, finally achieving victory and returning to take Jerusalem.

49 The Crusades Saladin a great Muslim hero

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