Presentation on theme: "EUROPE - The Early Middle Ages"— Presentation transcript:
1EUROPE - The Early Middle Ages EARLY MIDDLE AGES 501 to1100 AD20030040050060070080090010001100120013001400Decline of Rome576476Byzantine Empire1473Anglo-Saxon Britain1066Vikings751Carolingian Empire843The Normans962Holy Roman Empire (1806)Norman Britainc
2EUROPE - The adventure of discovery LINKThe Decline of the Roman Empire – 200 to 476165 AD, plague swept through Rome, decimating the populationit lasted two years, and was followed from 180 AD by rule of mad Emperor Commodusthere were uprisings in Britain & Africa and a series of poor and short-lived Emperorspower shifted to the provincesthe British & the Parthians in east caused trouble, and the barbarians (Franks, Goths, Alemanni & Vandals) were threatening; Rome had to abandon Hungary & Bavariaparts of Empire were splitting away: Britain, Gaul, Syria - the economy declinedin 284, the Empire split into 2: the Greek-speaking east & the latin-speaking westthe army was reorganized and taxes charged to pay for itConstantine ruled from 312 to 337; he favoured Christianity and moved the capital of Empire to Byzantium, renaming it Constantinople; this city became rich, while Rome declinedRome was sacked in 410 & 455, & last Emperor deposed by Goths in 476various Germanic kingdoms replaced once-proud Rome
3EUROPE - The adventure of discovery The Roman Empire – the great division in 284 ADThe western Empire declined and collapsedin 476 AD when the last Emperor was deposed by theGoths. The eastern part was renamed Byzantiumand survived till taken over by the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
4EUROPE - The adventure of discovery The Latin Languageamo I loveamas you loveamat he/she lovesamamus we loveamatis you loveamant they loveinsula nominative (subject)insula you loveinsulam accusative (object)insulae genitiveinsulae dativeinsula ablativeAMARE = to loveINSULA = an islandan amateur photographer(= lover of photography)an amorous look …I’m not enamoured of …an example of insular thoughtI live on a peninsular. (pen = almost)The machine is poorly insulated.
5EUROPE - The adventure of discovery The Latin Language – noun inflectionsinsula nominative (subject) Insula bella est.insula you love O insula, te amoinsulam accusative (object) Insulam amoinsulae genitive Insulae dicit.insulae dative Historiam insulae amoinsula ablative Puer insulae est.INSULA = an island.
6EUROPE - The adventure of discovery Language SourcesThe Origin of Western Languagessome Latin sentencesthe Latin LanguageLatin proverbsLatin course for beginnersLatin expressions used in EnglishFrench words used in Englishthe Anglo-Norman languageI love you.Te amo.Je t’aime.Te quiero.Ti amo.
7EUROPE - The adventure of discovery ChristianityChristianity has been fundamental to the history of Europearound time JC was born, many different sects in Roman Empireby 400 AD, Christianity was dominantJews had long believed a Saviour would be born to lead themJesus was born in Nazareth under Roman rulelittle known of early life, but in 27 AD he began preachinghe told many parables and performed miracles of healingthe Jewish authorites accused him of blasphemythe Romans under Pontius Pilate tried and crucified himhe is believed to have come to life again after three days (the Resurrection)
8EUROPE - The adventure of discovery Jesus Christ - Preacher
9EUROPE - The adventure of discovery "The Last Supper" - by Leonardo da Vinci
10EUROPE The Crucifixion of Jesus Christ by the Romans The adventure of discovery
11EUROPE - The adventure of discovery Emperor ConstantineChristians were persecuted for their faithmany died cruelly in the Romans' amphitheatresthe Emperor Constantine recognized Christianity in 313 ADhe is said to have adopted the Christian symbol by painting it on his soldiers' shields before a successful battlethanks to him, Christianity became deeply rooted by the 5th century
12EUROPE - The adventure of discovery Who wereThe Celts?The Celts – 500 BC to 43 ADNeolithicStonesin 500 BC, Celts were dominant European powerthey had expanded from southern Germanynot a nation, more a conferation of tribes with shared cultureinfluence stretched from Spain to Britain, Germany and Northern Italy and as far as Anatoliathey were tribal farmers gathered around their Chiefs’ strongholdsthey were bound together by the Druids; learned priests, lawmakers, bards & sagesCelts also had artists, musicians & metalworkersthey traded with Rome, Greece & other countries, but were not much influenced by them
13EUROPE - The adventure of discovery Who wereThe Celts?The Celts – 500 BC to 43 ADeach Celt was a freeman with individual rightsDruidic justice was famous and tribal bonds strongchiefs were elected by tribespeople, and high-kings by the Chiefsboth could be deposed if not doing wellthey were fierce warriors; and used iron for weapons and toolsin 390 BC they sacked Rome & in 280 BC they raided Greece & Anatoliathey also fought amongst themselves; the Romans exploited this when invading Gaul (France) & Britainthe British leader (Caractarus) was betrayed by other Celtsdisunited, the Celts lost their independence in 43 to 80 ADthey later accepted Roman rule and fought for them against Germanic barbarianstheir culture lives on in Ireland, Brittany, Cornwall and parts of Wales & Scotland (The Celts & their languages - the Breton Language)
14the Huns were fearsome warriors the complex routes of the barbarians in the early part of the first milleniumthe Huns were fearsome warriors
15EUROPE - The adventure of discovery CelticPeoplesTodayThe Celts – Boudicea
16A Celtic roundhousecooking & washing took place around the central firepeople slept around the inside of the wall
17EUROPE - The adventure of discovery The Barbarians – 1 AD to 150 BC'barbarian' means 'outsider"; they lived in small farming communities and were ferociousGermans in South Sweden & North Germany moved south and pushed the Celts westThe Romans tried to control the Germans and were badly beaten in 9 AD; they traded with some friendly tribes and recruited some into the armyFranks, Alemanni & Goths raided the Empire in 260 to 270 AD - the Romans had to make peace and settle them
18EUROPE - The adventure of discovery The Hunsthe Huns (Xiongnu) were evicted from Mongolia by the Chinesethey swept into Europe, settling in Hungarythe German tribes panicked, pushing deeper into the Roman Empire for safetythe Romans settled many, but the Vandals in Greece rebelled and sacked Rome in 410 AD, the year that Rome left Britainfrom 440 to 450 AD, the Huns ravaged Greece, Gaul & Germany, destroying everythingan alliance of Germans & Romans finally defeated them, but the Empire was now weakwhen Attila the Hun attacked Northern Italy, the Western Roman Empire finally collapsed
19EUROPE - The adventure of discovery Attila the Hun
20EUROPE - The adventure of discovery The Anglo-Saxons – 600 to 1066 ADRoman withdrawal from Britain in 410 led to revival of original ‘Celts’then Angles, Saxons & Jutes arrived in Britain in 5th & 6th centuriesthey gained a foothold in southeast, but were resisted from 500 to by King Arthur & his Knights of the Round Tableafter major battle in 552, Saxons took over south & central Englandfollowing their invading countrymen, others came from the mainlandBritish towns, villages & farms were abandonedancient Britons fled to Wales, Ireland, Scotland, Brittany & NW Spain (Galicia)
21EUROPE - The adventure of discovery Europe to 1100 ADthis period is often known as "the Dark Ages"Byzantine Empire (eastern part of original Roman Empire) acted as a stable focus for hristendom, but its fortunes ebbed and flowedin 8th century, Muslims invaded Spain, setting up an advanced culture there that lasted 700 yearsIn the north, the Franks established the first European Empire, but it declined in 9th century after Charlemagne's deathnations everywhere slowly took shape, overseen by Catholic Church in Romethis was accelerated by threats from Magyars, Vikings and Muslims in Spainby 1100 some European nations were strong and prosperousuniversities were founded, church-building flourished, towns grew in size and importancemedieval leaders started overseas military adventures, e.g. the Crusades
22EUROPE - The adventure of discovery The Anglo-Saxons – 600 to 1066 ADthe Christian church went with the fleeing Britonsthe ‘Germans’ brought new farming and ownership methodsgradually seven kingdoms emerged, which often fought each othereventually England was united under Egbert of Wessex in 829789, first Vikings appearedby 1850, they had started to settle, but there began battles with the Anglo-Saxonsfor some time England was ruled by the Danes, but in 1066 William the Conqueror arrived with the Normans, and took over the country
23EUROPE - The adventure of discovery The Anglo-Saxons – 600 to 1066 ADThanes (nobles)Churls (freemen)Serfs (slaves)There were three classesin Anglo-Saxon society:Here they are harvesting barley under supervision
24EUROPE - The adventure of discovery The Carolingians to 843Germanic tribe the Franks founded Europe's first rich & powerful Empiresettled in Belgium & Northern FranceMerovingian leader Clovis ( ) established capital in ParisClovis became a Christian and earned Rome's supportunited the Frankish tribes, defeated the Gauls, the Allemanni and the Visigothscreated a kingdom resembling today's Francesons consolidated this, but quarrelled; power came to Charles MartellCharles Martell defeated the Muslims at Poitiers in 732Charles founded the Carolingian dynasty; in 751 Charles Martell's son, Pépin, replaced Merovingians as first Frankish leaderPepin's son, Charlemagne became Kingconquered all of France, then Germany, Italy & the Netherlandsquelled Saxons & Avars in Central Europe, forcing them to adopt Christianity
25EUROPE - The adventure of discovery The Carolingians to 843Charlemagne supported the Catholic Churchin return, the Pope crowned him "Holy Roman Emperor" in 800Charlemagne was a lawmaker and founded schools, cathedrals & monasterieshe invited scholars, scribes, architects & philosophers to his courthis capital at Aachen in Germany became chief centre of learning in western Christendomhe died in 814; on death of his successor, Louis the Pious, the Empire split into three parts, each going to one of his sonsthe remains of the Empire eventually became France & GermanyCarolingians ruled Germany until 911 and France until 987
26EUROPE - The adventure of discovery The Carolingians to 843Charlemagne's descendants ruled France until 987, when Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, was crowned King of France. His descendants, starting with the Capetian dynasty, ruled France until 1792, when the French Revolution established a Republic, in a period of increasingly radical change that began in 1789.
27The Carolingians to 843RIGHT: The Carolingian Renaissance inspired this ivory carving of St Gregory & other scholars at work - the Aachen scholars created a new script called minuscule, but Charlemagne never learned to write.
28EUROPE - The adventure of discovery The Carolingians to 843Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor in 800 ADHoly Roman Emperors were crowned in the Palatine Chapel, Aachen
29EUROPE - The adventure of discovery BBCThe Vikings – 600 to 1000 AD‘pirates’ from Scandinavia, they ransacked Europe for over 200 yearsmade excellent wooden ships with shallow draughtbegan in 7th centre to raid coastal towns & monasterieslater sailed up Rhine, Loire & Seine & took over Baltic Seaas Normans, invaded England in 1066not all were warriors: some farmers looking for new landsettled in Iceland, Greenland and many other countriesby 1000 had settled down: Nordic homelands became Christian
31EUROPE - The adventure of discovery The Vikings – 600 to 1000 ADenormous impact on northern Europeestablished trading routes & townsfounded Russia, influenced France, Holland, Poland, Britain & Irelandweakened Carolingian Empiredescendents invaded England in 1066 and changed it foreveralso among leaders of the Crusadesto protect themselves from Vikings, people had to rely on feudal lordsthey exchanged work and goods for their lords’ protection
34EUROPE - The adventure of discovery a Viking settlement
35EUROPE - The adventure of discovery LINK 1LINK 2
36EUROPE - The adventure of discovery LINKThe Holy Roman Empire – 962 to 1440founded by Charlemagne in 800; not really Roman or particularly holyGerman "Empire" concerned with power of kings & Popesafter Charlemage’s death, Carolingian Empire gradually broke upOtto 1 crowned King of Germany 936: sought to revive Roman Empirecrowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope in 962managed to unite the feuding nobles of Germanytechnically, the HRE lasted till 1806
37EUROPE - The adventure of discovery The Battle of HastingsThe Normans – 1066Normans were Danish overlords living in Normandy from 900 onwardsthey had absorbed Christian and Carolingian ideas; few in number, they were tough warriorsafter a dispute with Harold of England about who should have the English crown, William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066Harold was defeated at Battle, near Hastings, and Willam the Conqueror was crowned in Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day, 1066the Bayeux Tapestry was created to commemorate William’s victorymany English continued to resist for several years, but rebellions were brutally crushed; William built many castles to subdue the landhe took land from the English and gave it to foreign nobles who had supported him and to the Church to gain their favourthe Normans in England kept their lands across the Channel, so English and "French" politics and history were inextricably mixed
38EUROPE - The adventure of discovery The NormansWilliam’s biography
39EUROPE - The adventure of discovery Norman CastlesThe Normansthe Normans built castles, monasteries and great cathedrals; many towns grew up around themthe nobility spoke French; the natives English spoke old Englishcentral administration & tax were establisheda list of the country’s wealth was made in the Domesday BookNorman rule was harsh; they cared mainly about wealth & powerthey used England as a base for foreign adventures, but nevertheless England developed economicallyWilliam died in 1087; he was succeeded by his two sons, but by disagreements arose about the successionA new Norman dynasty (the Plantagenets) was founded in 1154; their first King, Henry II, ruled England and half of France1060, Normans also invaded Sicily & S Italy, supporting the Pope against the Byzantines & Arabs; in 13th century, they were prominent in the Crusades
40EUROPE - The adventure of discovery The feudal chain in the Middle Agesthe Normans formed a feudal network very important in 13th centuryin feudalism, a long chain of people held land in return for servicesnobles & knights doing great service to the Crown were rewarded with large estates
41EUROPE - The adventure of discovery The Feudal system in the Middle Ages
42EUROPE - The adventure of discovery The Normans – 1066the Norman invasion had a major effect on the development of ENGLISHIn 1204 AD, King John lost the province of Normandy to the King of France; Norman nobles of England became ever more estranged from their French cousinsEngland became the chief concern of the nobility, rather than their estates in France, so they adopted a modified English as their native tongue150 years later, the Black Death ( ) killed over 30% of the English population; the laboUring and merchant classes grew in economic and social importance, and along with them English increased in importance compared to Anglo-Normanthis mixture of the two languages came to be known as Middle English; the most famous example of Middle English is Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales"Middle English can be read, albeit with difficulty, by English-speaking peopleby 1362, the linguistic division between nobility and the commoners was largely over; in that year, the Statute of Pleading was adopted, making English the language of the courts and Parliament
43EUROPE - The adventure of discovery The Prologue from Geoffrey CHAUCER’s « Pardoner’s Tale » (1387)WHAN that Aprille with his shoures sote;The droghte of Marche hath perced to the roteAnd bathed every veyne in swich licour,Of which vertu engendred is the flour,Whan Zephirus eek with his swete breeth;Inspired hath in every bolt and heethThe tendre croppes, and the yonge sonneHath in the Ram his halfe cours y-ronne;And smale fowles maken melodyeThat slepen al the night with open y(So priketh hem nature in hir corages)Than longen folk to goon on pilgrimages.Chaucer – his life & works
44EUROPE - The adventure of discovery The Prologue from Geoffrey CHAUCER’s « Pardoner’s Tale »And palmers for to seken straunge strondesTo ferne halwes, couthe in sondry londes";And specially, from every shires ende isOf Engelond, to Caunterbury they wende,The holy blisful martir for to sekeThat hem hath holpen, whan that they were sekeBifel that, in that seson on a day,In Southwerk at the Tabard as I lay,Redy to wenden on my pilgrimage,To Caunterbury with ful devout corage.The development of English after Chaucer,from Middle English to Early Modern EnglishWilliam Shakespeare
45EUROPE - the adventure of discovery LINKThe Crusades – 1095 to 1291Palestine, once ruled by Byzantium, conquered by Muslims in 637Christians still able to visit Holy Lands till 1095, when Seljuk Turks arrived1095, Pope Urban II called on Christians to free Palestinemany thousands heeded the callin all, 8 crusades took place, many complete failuressaddest was the ‘Children’s Crusade’: 50,000 gathered in Marseille from France & Germany; once they left port, nothing was ever heard of them again; they are supposed to have starved to death or became slavesRichard I of England, Richard the Lionheart, led the third Crusade against the great Muslim leader SaladinMore on "Children's Crusade"
46EUROPE - the adventure of discovery LINKKrak desChevaliersin SyriaThe Crusaders built Norman style castles in Palestine & Syria. Krak des Chevaliers held 2,000 men was besieged by the Muslims in 1271, when they starved the Crusaders into surrender.
47EUROPE - the adventure of discovery LINKRichard the Lionheart ( )The Myth of Robin HoodRichard led army of Knights to Holy Land in 1191did not capture Jerusalem, but signed a five-year treaty with Saladinthis allowed European pilgrims to visit the holy sites againreturning to England, RLH was captured by Leopold of Austria and then by Henry IV, the Holy Roman Emperor, and ramsomed for one year, returning to England in 1194he is buried at the Abbaye de Fontevrault near Tours, France
48EUROPE - the adventure of discovery The decisive Battle of Hattinagainst Saladin in 1187Saladin tricked the Crusaders into climbing a hill on a very hot day. While the Crusaders roasted in their metal armour, Saladin surrounded and harried them, finally achieving victory and returning to take Jerusalem.