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Presentation on theme: "MOTIVATION THEORY (HL) IB BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT A COURSE COMPANION: p129-131."— Presentation transcript:


2 ELTON MAYO Mayo is most famously known for describing the “Hawthorne Effect” (1933) which occurs when the output of a worker or team improves because the people are being observed or appreciated at work.

3 Work Place Experiment Mayo The most commonly cited example is when managers changed the lighting conditions at work in one factory. When they increased the lighting at the factory productivity improved. When the lights were dimmed productivity also improved. Mayo concluded that people derive a great deal of satisfaction at work from social interaction in the workplace. Just the fact that the managers were taking an interest in work conditions made employees feel important and established their cooperation. As a result, output increased.

4 Money & Physical Conditions at Work Little Value: Mayo & Herzberg. In a similar way to Herzberg, Mayo believed that money and physical conditions at work had little motivational value. Mayo believed that the value of social interaction at work and the content of work were far more important when it came to intrinsic motivation.

5 DAVID McCLELLAND McClelland proposed that a worker’s needs are acquired over time and are formed by life experiences. McClelland classified these need as achievement, affiliation and power, and argued that a worker’s motivation are affected by these needs.

6 DAVID McCLELLAND Achievement People with high achievement needs like to succeed and will thus avoid easy tasks (because these tasks will not challenge them). They will also avoid high risk challenges because the chances of success are low (and they do not like to fail) Achievers like regular feedback so that they know that they are achieving. They also like to work on their own or with other achievers so they can contribute to their success.

7 DAVID McCLELLAND Affiliation People with affiliation needs like to work in a harmonious work environment where they are liked and accepted. They like to work in an environment with considerable social interaction and they will go out of their way to contribute to make people feel needed. These individuals enjoy being team members and tend to perform well in roles where there is considerable social interaction.

8 DAVID McCLELLAND Power McClelland’s final motivator is the need for power. Some people like to have power over an individual, while others may want to have power over a group. These individuals strive to direct the actions of others to further goals of the organization.

9 PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Process theory refers to the process that originally initiated a behaviour. Eg: If a teacher praises a student for a good piece of work then that outcome (a good piece of work) will be repeated if the same process (praise) is repeated. Equity theory and expectancy theory come under the category of the process theories of motivation.

10 VICTOR VROOM & EXPECTANCY THEORY Vroom argues that individuals strive to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. The most important features of the theory (1964) are expectancy, instrumentality and valence.

11 VICTOR VROOM & EXPECTANCY THEORY Expectancy This refers to whether or not people expect that they will be able to achieve a given role or task. If people expect they can do a given job they will be motivated to do it. Highly confident individuals who have the support of their superiors and colleagues and the necessary tools for the job, are likely to have a high perception of their expectancy.

12 VICTOR VROOM & EXPECTANCY THEORY Instrumentality This refers to the likelihood that workers will be rewarded in some way if they do a good job. If individuals see some kind of “carrot” for doing a good job, then it is more likely they will perform well. So if you believe that there is a good chance that your parents will reward you if you get good grades, then you will view your work as having a high instrumentality. Work paid largely on a commission basis is designed to make workers believe that there is a high probability that if they perform well they will be rewarded.

13 VICTOR VROOM & EXPECTANCY THEORY Valence This describes the emotional connection people attach to a given outcome. If you like receiving praise then that outcome is positively valent. If you feel a job will cause too much stress or tiredness then you will avoid it. Those outcomes have negative valence. An employer could use positive valence to motivate employees and make sure that employees know what rewards they are likely to receive for good performance.

14 VICTOR VROOM & EXPECTANCY THEORY Vroom believes that an employee will have high motivation if the employee expects to be able to do the job (expectancy), believes the job will have a positive reward (instrumentality) and has a positive emotional connection with the work (positive valence).

15 JOHN STACY ADAMS & EQUITY THEORY The second process theory of motivation is Adam’s equity theory. Adam argues that people who believe that they are rewarded too much or too little for their job will experience “pain” or dissatisfaction at work. They will therefore seek to redress the perceived imbalance.

16 JOHN STACY ADAMS & EQUITY THEORY Workers do not have to all receive the same – they just have to perceive that what they get from the organization is consistent with the contribution they make to it. Of course, different people will have different views on this. If employees believe that they are under- rewarded at work for their contribution, they will be motivated to redress that imbalance.

17 Take the Online Quiz Go to the following website: In the search box at the top of the page type in: Motivation Theory Take the online quiz. Make sure you record your name before starting the quiz. You can use these Powerpoint slides to complete. Let me know your result when finished. (I will come to your computer to verify!)

18 Grading Scheme For Quiz There are 28 Questions. 28-26 (7) 26-24 (6) 23-21 (5) 20-14 (4) 13-8 (3) 7-0 (2)


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