Presentation on theme: "Ancient Egypt: an Overview Powerful pharaohs created a large empire that reached the Euphrates River. Hatshepsut encouraged trade. Ramses II expanded."— Presentation transcript:
Ancient Egypt: an Overview
Powerful pharaohs created a large empire that reached the Euphrates River. Hatshepsut encouraged trade. Ramses II expanded Egyptian rule to Syria. Egyptian power declined. Large drainage project created arable farmland. Traders had contacts with Middle East and Crete. Corruption and rebellions were common. Pharaohs organized a strong central state, were absolute rulers, and were considered gods. Egyptians built pyramids at Giza. Power struggles, crop failures, and cost of pyramids contributed to the collapse of the Old Kingdom. NEW KINGDOM MIDDLE KINGDOM OLD KINGDOM Three Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt 1
Geography Egypt is located in northeastern Africa The Nile River runs the length of the country flowing south to north The river begins in the mountains of Africa and empties into the Mediterranean Sea The climate is hot and dry, part of the Sahara Desert
Bordered on the south, east and west by the Sahara Desert, and on the north by the sea, ancient Egypt was protected from outside influences.
Present Day Egypt
Religion Belief that many gods and goddesses ruled the world and the afterlife Amon-Re: sun god Osiris: god of the underworld and of the Nilegods and goddesses The pharaoh was believed to be a god as well as a ruler Falcon Headed Sun God
Religion Belief in eternal life after death. Relied on the Book of the Dead to help them through the afterworld. Practiced mummification, the preservation of the body for use in the next life.
Canopic Jars made of alabaster for storage of heart, stomach, intestines and liver. The only organ that the Ancient Egyptians did not preserve was the Brain?
Inner coffin Mummy
Second inner coffin lid Second inner coffin
4000 Year Old Mummy of a Pharaoh Mummification Mummification
Book of the Dead Collection of spells, hymns, and prayers intended to secure a safe passage to the underworld for the deceased
Writing Making paper from papyrus
Hieroglyphics A formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians. Egyptians used cursive hieroglyphs for religious literature on papyrus and wood.
Present day Pyramids
II. Great Pyramid Tomb for Khufu an almost perfect square (deviation.05%) Orientation is exactly North, South, East West 2,300,000 blocks, 500ft high 20 years to build Average block weighs 2.5 tons –Some weigh 9 tons!
Sophisticated Civilisation (A) RAISING STONE BLOCKS One of the hardest jobs was moving the heavy stone blocks into place. The builders made huge ramps of earth and dragged the stones up the ramps with ropes. (B) SUPERVISORS Officials, who were probably priests, directed the gangs of workmen. (C) SHAPING THE STONE Each stone was carefully measured and shaped to fit into place. (D) ACCIDENTS Many workmen were killed or injured, crushed by the heavy stone blocks. Large Scale projects were now feasible –Planning –Writing and Mathematics –New Tools Public Works projects
The Great Sphinx
The Great Sphinx of Giza Photograph by Henri Bechard, 1887
VI. Ramses II ( )
HIGH PRIESTS AND PRIESTESSES Served gods and goddesses PHARAOH Earthly leader; considered a god NOBLES Fought pharaoh’s wars MERCHANTS, SCRIBES, AND ARTISANS Made furniture, jewelry, and fabrics for pharaohs and nobles, and provided for other needs PEASANT FARMERS AND SLAVES Worked in the fields and served the pharaoh Social Classes 2
Most Egyptian art is found underground or in the pyramids.
IV. Egyptian Artwork Egyptian Farmers & animals Stela (carved stone) Notice, all people drawn from the side – even when looking right at you!
Egyptian Proportion The Egyptians did not understand how to draw a person from the side perspective. When they drew a person’s side perspective they would draw the person’s body facing the front and the feet and head facing the side.
Egyptian painting and inside an Egyptian tomb
Various Art works for Ancient Egypt Nefertiti
King Tutankhamun “Tut” Took the throne when he was only 9. Died when he was 19 Most famous pharoh. Tomb was discovered in 1922
Meet a King and Queen of Egypt. They were discovered in King Mycerinus and Wife.