2Three Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt 1Three Kingdoms of Ancient EgyptOLD KINGDOMMIDDLEKINGDOMNEW KINGDOMPharaohs organized a strong central state, were absolute rulers, and were considered gods.Egyptians built pyramids at Giza.Power struggles, crop failures, and cost of pyramids contributed to the collapse of the Old Kingdom.Large drainage project created arable farmland.Traders had contacts with Middle East and Crete.Corruption andrebellions werecommon.Powerful pharaohs created a large empirethat reached the Euphrates River.Hatshepsutencouraged trade.Ramses II expanded Egyptian rule to Syria.Egyptian powerdeclined.
3Geography Egypt is located in northeastern Africa The Nile River runs the length of the country flowing south to northThe river begins in the mountains of Africa and empties into the Mediterranean SeaThe climate is hot and dry, part of the Sahara Desert
4Bordered on the south, east and west by the Sahara Desert, and on the north by the sea, ancient Egypt was protected from outside influences.
7ReligionBelief that many gods and goddesses ruled the world and the afterlife Amon-Re: sun god Osiris: god of the underworld and of the NileThe pharaoh was believed to be a god as well as a rulerFalcon Headed Sun God
8Religion Belief in eternal life after death. Relied on the Book of the Dead to help them through the afterworld.Practiced mummification, the preservation of the body for use in the next life.
9Canopic Jars made of alabaster for storage of heart, stomach, intestines and liver. The only organ that the Ancient Egyptians did not preserve was the Brain?
18II. Great Pyramid Tomb for Khufu an almost perfect square (deviation .05%)Orientation is exactly North, South, East West2,300,000 blocks, 500ft high20 years to buildAverage block weighs 2.5 tonsSome weigh 9 tons!123456
21Sophisticated Civilisation Large Scale projects were now feasiblePlanningWriting and MathematicsNew ToolsPublic Works projects(A) RAISING STONE BLOCKS One of the hardest jobs was moving the heavy stone blocks into place. The builders made huge ramps of earth and dragged the stones up the ramps with ropes. (B) SUPERVISORS Officials, who were probably priests, directed the gangs of workmen. (C) SHAPING THE STONE Each stone was carefully measured and shaped to fit into place. (D) ACCIDENTS Many workmen were killed or injured, crushed by the heavy stone blocks.
26Social Classes PHARAOH Earthly leader; considered a god 2Social ClassesPHARAOHEarthly leader; considered a godHIGH PRIESTS AND PRIESTESSESServed gods and goddessesNOBLESFought pharaoh’s warsMERCHANTS, SCRIBES, AND ARTISANSMade furniture, jewelry, and fabrics forpharaohs and nobles, and provided for other needsPEASANT FARMERS AND SLAVESWorked in the fields and served the pharaoh
28Where can we find Eygptian Art? Most Egyptian art is foundunderground or in the pyramids.
29Egyptian Farmers & animals IV. Egyptian ArtworkStela (carved stone)Egyptian Farmers & animalsNotice, all people drawn from the side – even when looking right at you!123456
30Egyptian ProportionThe Egyptians did not understand how to draw a person from the side perspective. When they drew a person’s side perspective they would draw the person’s body facing the front and the feet and head facing the side.