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Ancient Egypt: an Overview

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient Egypt: an Overview"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient Egypt: an Overview

2 Three Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt
1 Three Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt OLD KINGDOM MIDDLE KINGDOM NEW KINGDOM Pharaohs organized a strong central state, were absolute rulers, and were considered gods. Egyptians built pyramids at Giza. Power struggles, crop failures, and cost of pyramids contributed to the collapse of the Old Kingdom. Large drainage project created arable farmland. Traders had contacts with Middle East and Crete. Corruption and rebellions were common. Powerful pharaohs created a large empire that reached the Euphrates River. Hatshepsut encouraged trade. Ramses II expanded Egyptian rule to Syria. Egyptian power declined.

3 Geography Egypt is located in northeastern Africa
The Nile River runs the length of the country flowing south to north The river begins in the mountains of Africa and empties into the Mediterranean Sea The climate is hot and dry, part of the Sahara Desert

4 Bordered on the south, east and west by the Sahara Desert, and on the north by the sea, ancient Egypt was protected from outside influences.


6 Present Day Egypt

7 Religion Belief that many gods and goddesses ruled the world and the afterlife Amon-Re: sun god Osiris: god of the underworld and of the Nile The pharaoh was believed to be a god as well as a ruler Falcon Headed Sun God

8 Religion Belief in eternal life after death.
Relied on the Book of the Dead to help them through the afterworld. Practiced mummification, the preservation of the body for use in the next life.

9 Canopic Jars made of alabaster for storage of heart, stomach, intestines and liver. The only organ that the Ancient Egyptians did not preserve was the Brain?

10 Mummy Inner coffin 1 2 3 4 5 6

11 Second inner coffin lid
1 2 3 4 5 6

12 4000 Year Old Mummy of a Pharaoh Mummification

13 Book of the Dead Collection of spells, hymns, and prayers intended to secure a safe passage to the underworld for the deceased

14 Writing Making paper from papyrus

15 Hieroglyphics A formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians. Egyptians used cursive hieroglyphs for religious literature on papyrus and wood.

16 Pyramids

17 Present day Pyramids

18 II. Great Pyramid Tomb for Khufu
an almost perfect square (deviation .05%) Orientation is exactly North, South, East West 2,300,000 blocks, 500ft high 20 years to build Average block weighs 2.5 tons Some weigh 9 tons! 1 2 3 4 5 6



21 Sophisticated Civilisation
Large Scale projects were now feasible Planning Writing and Mathematics New Tools Public Works projects (A) RAISING STONE BLOCKS One of the hardest jobs was moving the heavy stone blocks into place. The builders made huge ramps of earth and dragged the stones up the ramps with ropes. (B) SUPERVISORS Officials, who were probably priests, directed the gangs of workmen. (C) SHAPING THE STONE Each stone was carefully measured and shaped to fit into place. (D) ACCIDENTS Many workmen were killed or injured, crushed by the heavy stone blocks.

22 1 2 3 4 5 6

23 The Great Sphinx

24 The Great Sphinx of Giza
Photograph by Henri Bechard, 1887

25 VI. Ramses II ( ) 1 2 3 4 5 6

26 Social Classes PHARAOH Earthly leader; considered a god
2 Social Classes PHARAOH Earthly leader; considered a god HIGH PRIESTS AND PRIESTESSES Served gods and goddesses NOBLES Fought pharaoh’s wars MERCHANTS, SCRIBES, AND ARTISANS Made furniture, jewelry, and fabrics for pharaohs and nobles, and provided for other needs PEASANT FARMERS AND SLAVES Worked in the fields and served the pharaoh

27 Egyptian Art

28 Where can we find Eygptian Art?
Most Egyptian art is found underground or in the pyramids.

29 Egyptian Farmers & animals
IV. Egyptian Artwork Stela (carved stone) Egyptian Farmers & animals Notice, all people drawn from the side – even when looking right at you! 1 2 3 4 5 6

30 Egyptian Proportion The Egyptians did not understand how to draw a person from the side perspective. When they drew a person’s side perspective they would draw the person’s body facing the front and the feet and head facing the side.

31 Egyptian painting and inside an Egyptian tomb


33 Various Art works for Ancient Egypt

34 An Egyptian Sculpture

35 King Tutankhamun “Tut”
Took the throne when he was only 9. Died when he was 19 Most famous pharoh. Tomb was discovered in 1922


37 A king and queen of Egypt
Meet a King and Queen of Egypt. They were discovered in 1910. King Mycerinus and Wife .

38 Temples & Pyramids

39 The End

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