Presentation on theme: "Special Unit Topics: Architecture, Religion, Daily Life, Leadership"— Presentation transcript:
1Special Unit Topics: Architecture, Religion, Daily Life, Leadership EGYPTINTRO: ANCIENT EGYPT The Land The Kingdoms The Classes AdvancesSpecial Unit Topics: Architecture, Religion, Daily Life, Leadership
4Geography of the Ancient Nile Valley “Egypt is wholly the gift of the Nile.” – HerodotusSettled & established farming villages along Nile.Egyptians depended on annual floods to soak the land & deposit a layer of silt or rich soil.Egyptians had to cooperate to control the Nile, building dikes, reservoirs and irrigation ditches.Rulers used Nile to link/unite Upper/Lower Egypt.Nile served as trade route connecting Egypt to Africa, the Middle East and Mediterranean world.
5Egypt & Nubia For centuries, Egypt traded or fought with Nubia. During the New Kingdom, Egypt conquered Nubia.Nubians served in Egyptian armies and influenced Egyptian culture.Egyptian art from this period shows Nubian soldiers, musicians, or prisoners.When Egypt declined, Nubia conquered Egypt.Nubians did not see themselves as conquerors.They respected Egyptian traditions.
6Actual borders of Nubia shifted over time, and Peoples of Nubia formed several kingdoms and civilizations.Today, Nubia is defined as the Nile area between Aswan of Egypt and Khartoum (capital of Sudan), bordered byRed Sea in the eastLibyan desert in the westNorthern border of 1st cataract at Aswan -- known as “Wawat.”Southern end at 2nd cataract (now inundated by Lake Nasser) was referred to as “Cush” by the Egyptians, and as Ethiopia by the ancient Greeks.“Nubia” either comes from the Nubian word “nob” <gold>, or “nugur” / “nub” <meaning black>. Both are plausibleNubia was, in ancient times, both a great producer of gold mainly for the Egyptian market, and inhabited by African Blacks.
7New Kingdom- (1530-1070 BC)- Imperial period (Valley of the Kings) Early Dynastic ( )- unification of upper and lower Egypt into a single Kingdom by Pharaoh NarmerOld Kingdom- ( BC)- development of despotic Pharonic dynasties- construction of Pyramids1st Intermediate- ( BC)- Chaos and disunityMiddle Kingdom- ( BC)- reestablishment of Kingdom with Thebes as political center- beginning of powerful cult of Amun2nd Intermediate- ( BC)- Hyksos invasionNew Kingdom- ( BC)- Imperial period (Valley of the Kings)Late Period- ( BC)- decline of Kingdom; conquest by Alexander the Great
8OLD KINGDOM KINGDOM NEW KINGDOM MIDDLEKINGDOMNEW KINGDOMPharaohs organized a strong central state, were absolute rulers, and were considered gods.Egyptians built pyramids at Giza.Power struggles, crop failures, and cost of pyramids contributed to the collapse of the Old Kingdom.Large drainage project created arable farmland.Traders had contacts with Middle East and Crete.Corruption andrebellions werecommon.Hyksos invaded & occupied the deltaregion.Powerful pharaohs created a large empirethat reached the Euphrates River.Hatshepsutencouraged trade.Ramses II expanded Egyptian rule to Syria.Egyptian powerdeclined.
9Class System in Ancient Egypt PHARAOHEarthly leader; considered a godHIGH PRIESTS AND PRIESTESSESServed gods and goddessesNOBLESFought pharaoh’s warsMERCHANTS, SCRIBES, AND ARTISANSMade furniture, jewelry & fabrics forpharaohs & nobles, & provided for other needsPEASANT FARMERS AND SLAVESWorked in the fields and served the pharaoh
10Advances in Learning Advances in the Arts Developed a form of picture writing called hieroglyphics.Doctors diagnosed and curedillnesses, performed surgery, and developed medicines still usedtoday.Developed 12-month calendar onwhich modern calendar is based.Astronomers mapped constellations and charted movement of theplanets.Developed practical geometry.Skilled in design and engineering.Statues, paintings, and writings tell us about ancient Egyptian values and attitudes.Developed painting style thatremained unchanged for thousands of years.Wrote hymns and prayers to thegods, proverbs, love poems, stories of victory in battle, and folk tales.Built pyramids and other greatbuildings, such as temple ofRamses II.
11Overview of religion in Ancient Egypt Belief that many gods and goddesses ruled the world and the afterlife.Pharaoh was believed to be a god as well as a monarch.Belief in eternal life after death.Relied on the Book of the Dead to help them through the afterworld.Practiced mummification, the preservation of the body for use in the next life.