Presentation on theme: "EGYPT INTRO: ANCIENT EGYPT INTRO: ANCIENT EGYPT The Land The Kingdoms The Classes Advances Special Unit Topics: Architecture, Religion, Daily Life, Leadership."— Presentation transcript:
EGYPT INTRO: ANCIENT EGYPT INTRO: ANCIENT EGYPT The Land The Kingdoms The Classes Advances Special Unit Topics: Architecture, Religion, Daily Life, Leadership
Egyptian Empire ~ 1450 BCE
Egypt is wholly the gift of the Nile. – Herodotus Settled & established farming villages along Nile. Egyptians depended on annual floods to soak the land & deposit a layer of silt or rich soil. Egyptians had to cooperate to control the Nile, building dikes, reservoirs and irrigation ditches. Rulers used Nile to link/unite Upper/Lower Egypt. Nile served as trade route connecting Egypt to Africa, the Middle East and Mediterranean world. Geography of the Ancient Nile Valley
For centuries, Egypt traded or fought with Nubia. During the New Kingdom, Egypt conquered Nubia. Nubians served in Egyptian armies and influenced Egyptian culture. Egyptian art from this period shows Nubian soldiers, musicians, or prisoners. When Egypt declined, Nubia conquered Egypt. Nubians did not see themselves as conquerors. They respected Egyptian traditions. Egypt & Nubia
Actual borders of Nubia shifted over time, and Peoples of Nubia formed several kingdoms and civilizations. Today, Nubia is defined as the Nile area between Aswan of Egypt and Khartoum (capital of Sudan), bordered by Red Sea in the east Libyan desert in the west Wawat.Northern border of 1 st cataract at Aswan -- known as Wawat. CushSouthern end at 2nd cataract (now inundated by Lake Nasser) was referred to as Cush by the Egyptians, and as Ethiopia by the ancient Greeks. nob nugurnubNubia either comes from the Nubian word nob, or nugur / nub. Both are plausible Nubia was, in ancient times, both a great producer of gold mainly for the Egyptian market, and inhabited by African B lacks.
Early Dynastic ( )- unification of upper and lower Egypt into a single Kingdom by Pharaoh Narmer Old Kingdom- ( BC)- development of despotic Pharonic dynasties- construction of Pyramids –1 st Intermediate- ( BC)- Chaos and disunity Middle Kingdom- ( BC)- reestablishment of Kingdom with Thebes as political center- beginning of powerful cult of Amun –2 nd Intermediate- ( BC)- Hyksos invasion New Kingdom- ( BC)- Imperial period (Valley of the Kings) Late Period- ( BC)- decline of Kingdom; conquest by Alexander the Great
OLD KINGDOM MIDDLE KINGDOM NEW KINGDOM Pharaohs organized a strong central state, were absolute rulers, and were considered gods. Egyptians built pyramids at Giza. Power struggles, crop failures, and cost of pyramids contributed to the collapse of the Old Kingdom. Large drainage project created arable farmland. Traders had contacts with Middle East and Crete. Corruption and rebellions were common. Hyksos invaded & occupied the delta region. Powerful pharaohs created a large empire that reached the Euphrates River. Hatshepsut encouraged trade. Ramses II expanded Egyptian rule to Syria. Egyptian power declined.
Class System in Ancient Egypt PHARAOH Earthly leader; considered a god HIGH PRIESTS AND PRIESTESSES Served gods and goddesses NOBLES Fought pharaohs wars MERCHANTS, SCRIBES, AND ARTISANS Made furniture, jewelry & fabrics for pharaohs & nobles, & provided for other needs PEASANT FARMERS AND SLAVES Worked in the fields and served the pharaoh
Advances in Learning Developed a form of picture writing called hieroglyphics. Doctors diagnosed and cured illnesses, performed surgery, and developed medicines still used today. Developed 12-month calendar on which modern calendar is based. Astronomers mapped constellations and charted movement of the planets. Developed practical geometry. Skilled in design and engineering. Advances in the Arts Statues, paintings, and writings tell us about ancient Egyptian values and attitudes. Developed painting style that remained unchanged for thousands of years. Wrote hymns and prayers to the gods, proverbs, love poems, stories of victory in battle, and folk tales. Built pyramids and other great buildings, such as temple of Ramses II.
Belief that many gods and goddesses ruled the world and the afterlife. Pharaoh was believed to be a god as well as a monarch. Belief in eternal life after death. Book of the Dead Relied on the Book of the Dead to help them through the afterworld. Practiced mummification, the preservation of the body for use in the next life. Overview of religion in Ancient Egypt