Presentation on theme: "Ancient Egypt: Timeline Old Kingdom2700 BC – 2200 BCOld Kingdom Pharaoh was god and king. Khufutrade begins Middle Kingdom2200 BC – 1550 BCMiddle Kingdom."— Presentation transcript:
Timeline Old Kingdom2700 BC – 2200 BCOld Kingdom Pharaoh was god and king. Khufutrade begins Middle Kingdom2200 BC – 1550 BCMiddle Kingdom Hyksos conquered Lower EgyptAhmose regained power New Kingdom1550 BC – 1055 BCNew Kingdom Military conquests make Egypt rich. Trade routes are developed. (Hapshepsut) Ramses the Great
Powerful pharaohs created a large empire that reached the Euphrates River. Hatshepsut encouraged trade. Ramses II expanded Egyptian rule to Syria. Egyptian power declined. Large drainage project created arable farmland. Traders had contacts with Middle East and Crete. Corruption and rebellions were common. Hyksos invaded and occupied the delta region. Pharaohs organized a strong central state, were absolute rulers, and were considered gods. Egyptians built pyramids at Giza. Power struggles, crop failures, and cost of pyramids contributed to the collapse of the Old Kingdom. NEW KINGDOM MIDDLE KINGDOM OLD KINGDOM Three Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt 1
Geography Egypt is located in northeastern Africa The Nile River runs the length of the country flowing south to north The river begins in the mountains of Africa and empties into the Mediterranean Sea The climate is hot and dry, part of the Sahara Desert
The grassy areas of Africa slowly grew drier. (Desertification) People moved into the Nile Valley (fertile) & near the Mediterranean Sea the Nile Giver of Life Nile spreads out to form a delta--(silt) rich soil.They called the dried out desert surrounding this area Kemet The Red Land (Egypt).
Geography Ancient Egypt was divided into two regions: Upper and Lower Egypt Lower (northern) Egypt consisted of the Nile River's delta made by the river as it empties into the Mediterranean. Upper Egypt was the long, narrow strip of ancient Egypt located south of the Delta.
The Nile River The Nile was the lifeblood of ancient Egypt It made life possible in the otherwise barren desert of Egypt. It is the longest river in the world (over 4,000 miles). It served as a source of food for the people of ancient Egypt It was the major source of water for bathing and drinking The Nile was crucial for farming
White & Blue Nile Meet in Sudan
The low strip of fertile land located on either side of the Nile River The river flooded during the annual rains It left the earth soaked and overlaid with a fresh layer of black silt. Most of the farming occurred here Most fertile soil in Africa
Bordered on the south, east and west by the Sahara Desert, and on the north by the sea, ancient Egypt was protected from outside influences.
Great Sahara Desert
Facts About the Nile River Length4,184 miles 2 SourcesLake Victoria, Uganda (White Nile); Lake Tana, Ethiopia (Blue Nile) MouthMediterranean Sea, off Egypt Countries Flows Through Egypt, Sudan, Uganda, Ethiopia, Zaire, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi Name OriginGreek word Nelios, which means "River Valley"
Nile flooded each year carrying silt. Many times the Nile flooded and killed many people, crops, animals. By studying the sky, they learned to predict when flooding would occur Watched the star (Sirius) using the first 365 day calendar. --used irrigation, dikes, dams, canals Also worshiped many gods-nature
Religion Belief that many gods and goddesses ruled the world and the afterlife Amon-Re: sun god Osiris: god of the underworld and of the Nilegods and goddesses Isis: goddess of magic Horus: sky god The pharaoh was believed to be a god as well as a ruler Falcon Headed Sun God
Religion Belief in eternal life after death. Relied on the Book of the Dead to help them through the afterworld. Practiced mummification, the preservation of the body for use in the next life.
Book of the Dead Collection of spells, hymns, and prayers intended to secure a safe passage to the underworld for the deceased
By 3000 BC Upper Egyptian kings had control of Lower Egypt--united by Menes This marked the beginning of the worlds first organized government represented one group--lasted 3000 The first dynasty was formed 33 pharoahs Hatshepsut was 1st woman pharaoh (dressed as man) pg 97
Writing Making paper from papyrus
What is hieroglyphics? Hieroglyphics is the picture writing used in ancient Egypt. The word hieroglyphics is made up of two Greek words - hieros, which means sacred, and glyphe, which means carving. The Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system consists of seven hundred picture signs. Papyrus (our word for paper)-great invention--made it easier to write scrolls up to100 feet long--libraries
Phonograms represent sounds, much as alphabet letters do. Ideograms are signs that represent whole words or concepts.
The Rosetta Stonehieroglyphics unlocked the recorded history of the ancient Egyptians in languages Obelisk-granite w/hieroglyphics
Pyramids Pyramid-more advanced than ziggarats 1st-step pyramid-- tomb for ruler 2nd-slanting sides & pointed peak Burial tombs Mummy--preserved bodies Souls of the dead- ready for afterlife Riches and servants buried with pharoahs Giza--Paraoh Khufu had built for himself-- 20 years to build As many as 100,000 workers 2 million blocks of stone 5,000 lb /gold
The Great Sphinx
In 1539 B.C. Egyptians took back the empire Amenhotep IV 1353 BC & wife, Nefertiti -- urged people to worship only one god, the Aton pharaoh changed his name to Akhenaton -angered priest--may have been murdered When Akhenaton died, 9 year old boy became pharaoh-Tutankhamen ruled only 9 years--tomb 3,300 years ago
Mythology Egyptian goddess Isis, tomb painting, ca BC.
HIGH PRIESTS AND PRIESTESSES Served gods and goddesses PHARAOH Earthly leader; considered a god NOBLES Fought pharaohs wars MERCHANTS, SCRIBES, AND ARTISANS Made furniture, jewelry, and fabrics for pharaohs and nobles, and provided for other needs PEASANT FARMERS AND SLAVES Worked in the fields and served the pharaoh Social Classes 2
Daily Life The Egyptians - Daily Life ov.uk/eglife.htm Egyptian clothing was often made of linen and usually white. Strangely, both men and women wore blue and green eye shadow and black kohl eyeliner. And if they could afford it, they usually wore gold jewelry.