2Timeline Old Kingdom 2700 BC – 2200 BC Pharaoh was god and king. Khufu—trade beginsMiddle Kingdom BC – 1550 BCHyksos conquered Lower Egypt—Ahmose regained powerNew Kingdom BC – 1055 BCMilitary conquests make Egypt rich. Trade routes are developed. (Hapshepsut) Ramses the Great
3Three Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt 1Three Kingdoms of Ancient EgyptOLD KINGDOMMIDDLEKINGDOMNEW KINGDOMPharaohs organized a strong central state, were absolute rulers, and were considered gods.Egyptians built pyramids at Giza.Power struggles, crop failures, and cost of pyramids contributed to the collapse of the Old Kingdom.Large drainage project created arable farmland.Traders had contacts with Middle East and Crete.Corruption andrebellions werecommon.Hyksos invaded and occupied the deltaregion.Powerful pharaohs created a large empirethat reached the Euphrates River.Hatshepsutencouraged trade.Ramses II expanded Egyptian rule to Syria.Egyptian powerdeclined.
4Geography Egypt is located in northeastern Africa The Nile River runs the length of the country flowing south to northThe river begins in the mountains of Africa and empties into the Mediterranean SeaThe climate is hot and dry, part of the Sahara Desert
5The grassy areas of Africa slowly grew drier. (Desertification) People moved into the Nile Valley (fertile) & near the Mediterranean Seathe Nile “Giver of Life”Nile spreads out to form a delta--(silt)rich soil.They called the dried outdesert surrounding this area KemetThe Red Land (Egypt).
7GeographyAncient Egypt was divided into two regions: Upper and Lower EgyptLower (northern) Egypt consisted of the Nile River's delta made by the river as it empties into the Mediterranean.Upper Egypt was the long, narrow strip of ancient Egypt located south of the Delta.
10The Nile River The Nile was the lifeblood of ancient Egypt It made life possible in the otherwise barren desert of Egypt.It is the longest river in the world (over 4,000 miles).It served as a source of food for the people of ancient EgyptIt was the major source of water for bathing and drinkingThe Nile was crucial for farming
15FloodplainThe low strip of fertile land located on either side of the Nile RiverThe river flooded during the annual rainsIt left the earth soaked and overlaid with a fresh layer of black silt.Most of the farming occurred hereMost fertile soil in Africa
16Bordered on the south, east and west by the Sahara Desert, and on the north by the sea, ancient Egypt was protected from outside influences.
19Facts About the Nile River Length4,184 miles2 SourcesLake Victoria, Uganda (White Nile); Lake Tana, Ethiopia (Blue Nile)MouthMediterranean Sea, off EgyptCountries Flows ThroughEgypt, Sudan, Uganda, Ethiopia, Zaire, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, BurundiName OriginGreek word Nelios, which means "River Valley"
20Nile flooded each year carrying silt. Many times the Nile flooded andkilled many people, crops, animals.By studying the sky, they learned to predict when flooding would occurWatched the star (Sirius)using the first 365 day calendar.--used irrigation, dikes, dams, canalsAlso worshiped many gods-nature
21ReligionBelief that many gods and goddesses ruled the world and the afterlife Amon-Re: sun god Osiris: god of the underworld and of the NileIsis: goddess of magic Horus: sky godThe pharaoh was believed to be a god as well as a rulerFalcon Headed Sun God
22Religion Belief in eternal life after death. Relied on the Book of the Dead to help them through the afterworld.Practiced mummification, the preservation of the body for use in the next life.
23Book of the DeadCollection of spells, hymns, and prayers intended to secure a safe passage to the underworld for the deceased
24By 3000 BC Upper Egyptian kings had control of Lower Egypt--united by Menes This marked the beginning of the world’s first organized governmentrepresented one group--lasted 3000The first dynasty was formed—33 pharoahsHatshepsut was 1st woman pharaoh (dressed as man) pg 97
27What is hieroglyphics?Hieroglyphics is the picture writing used in ancient Egypt. The word hieroglyphics is made up of two Greek words - hieros, which means sacred, and glyphe, which means carving.The Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system consists of seven hundred picture signs.Papyrus (our word for paper)-greatinvention--made it easier to writescrolls up to100 feet long--libraries
28Phonograms represent sounds, much as alphabet letters do Phonograms represent sounds, much as alphabet letters do. Ideograms are signs that represent whole words or concepts.
29The Rosetta Stone—hieroglyphics unlocked the recorded historyof the ancient Egyptians in 1822--3 languagesObelisk-granite w/hieroglyphics
30Pyramids Pyramid-more advanced than ziggarats 1st-step pyramid--tomb for ruler2nd-slanting sides & pointed peakBurial tombsMummy--preserved bodiesSouls of the dead-ready for afterlife Riches and servants buried with pharoahsGiza--Paraoh Khufu had built for himself-- 20 years to buildAs many as 100,000 workers2 million blocks of stone 5,000 lb /gold
35In 1539 B.C. Egyptians took back the empireAmenhotep IV 1353 BC & wife, Nefertiti -- urged people to worship only one god, the Atonpharaoh changed his name to Akhenaton -angered priest--may have been murdered When Akhenaton died, 9 year old boy became pharaoh-Tutankhamen ruled only 9 years--tomb 3,300 years ago
38MythologyEgyptian goddess Isis, tomb painting, ca BC.
39Social Classes PHARAOH Earthly leader; considered a god 2Social ClassesPHARAOHEarthly leader; considered a godHIGH PRIESTS AND PRIESTESSESServed gods and goddessesNOBLESFought pharaoh’s warsMERCHANTS, SCRIBES, AND ARTISANSMade furniture, jewelry, and fabrics forpharaohs and nobles, and provided for other needsPEASANT FARMERS AND SLAVESWorked in the fields and served the pharaoh
40Daily Life The Egyptians - Daily Life Egyptian clothing was often made of linen and usually white. Strangely, both men and women wore blue and green eye shadow and black kohl eyeliner. And if they could afford it, they usually wore gold jewelry.