Presentation on theme: "Ancient Egypt Mr. Koch Forest Lake High School World History A."— Presentation transcript:
Ancient Egypt Mr. Koch Forest Lake High School World History A
Nile River Provides life to Egypt – Supports animal life, irrigation/silt Flood cycle gave Egypt its seasons Flood time Planting time Harvesting time Flows north and prevailing winds blow south – aids transportation
Egypt Surrounded by deserts that isolate and protect Cataracts – Waterfalls or rapids – Protected from invaders from south Upper Egypt – Southern part of the Nile River – Ends at the last cataract Lower Egypt – Delta region of the Nile triangular marsh land that formed deposits of silt
Old Kingdom (2700 BC BC) Pharaohs organized strong central govt Claimed divine support Absolute power, owned all land in the kingdom – Vizier = pharaoh’s chief advisors Thousands of scribes carried out his instructions.
Old Kingdom (2700 BC BC) “The Pyramid Age” – Eternal tombs – Built without tools or the wheel Example of the strength of the empire – Only period they were built Why did they stop ?
Great Pyramid for Pharaoh Khufu at Giza Base was size of 10 football fields 480 feet tall 2 million stone block – 2.5 tons each Took 20 years to build
Great Pyramid for Pharaoh Khufu at Giza
Middle Kingdom (2200 BC BC) Armies occupy Nubia, export gold Expand trade to Middle East, Crete Many problems Crop failures Power struggles & corruption Cost of pyramid building Hyksos invade 1700 BC – Occupied Delta region – Used horse drawn chariots (awed Egyptians) – 100 years before new family rises and force Hyksos out of Egypt
New Kingdom (1600 BC BC) Empire grows to peak of power/territory Very powerful rulers – Hatshepsut Female ruler (1503 BC – 1482 BC) Expanded trade Rule with same powers as men – Ramses II Ruled as far north as Syria Fought the Hittites of Asia Minor Decline began after his rule
Tutankhamen BC Becomes pharaoh at age 8. He dies at age 18. – Buried with everything he would need in the afterlife Chariots, weapons, toys, furniture, jewelry, games, and food Solid gold coffin His tomb and riches discovered by Howard Carter in Why significant? – The only pharaoh to be found with all riches intact.
Tutankhamen’s Burial Chamber
Polytheistic Religion – Amon-Re Sun god Chief god – Pharaoh Viewed as a god Closely linked to Amon-Re – Osiris = god of the afterlife God of the Nile Judged souls of the dead – Isis = wife of Osiris Appealed to women Taught women how to grind corn, raise children, and weave cloth
Egyptian Civilization Belief in the afterlife – Dead souls ferried across lake of fire to Osiris to be judged – Heart weighed against feather of truth – Worthy souls entered Happy Field of Food to spend eternity – Sinners fed to the Eater of the Dead Book of the Dead – Gave instructions on how to live your life in order to pass Osiris’ judgment Gives us detailed values of Egyptians
Egyptian Civilization Afterlife Cont’d – Mummification = preservation of the dead – Embalmers removed brain through nostrils and most internal organs – Cavities filled with spices – Body dried and wrapped in linens Anubis: god of embalming
Egyptian Civilization Farmers – Vast majority of population – Had to serve Pharaoh in the off season Building palaces, pyramids, and tombs – Women worked fields with men Raised children More rights then the rest of the ancient world
Egyptian Civilization Written Records – Hieroglyphics = Egyptian picture writing Kept important records – Ideograms = pictures that symbolize idea or action Added later by scribes – Demotic = simple form of writing for everyday use Developed by scribes – Papyrus = paper like writing material from plant that grew on the banks of the Nile More convenient then carving hieroglyphics Stone carvings still used for official records
Egyptian Civilization Rosetta Stone – Black stone – Same message in three scripts Hieroglyphs Demotic Greek – Deciphered by Jean Champollin in early 1800s