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US unprepared for war. Failed invasion into Canada. Blockade hurt US economy…

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Presentation on theme: "US unprepared for war. Failed invasion into Canada. Blockade hurt US economy…"— Presentation transcript:

1 US unprepared for war. Failed invasion into Canada. Blockade hurt US economy…

2 The Battle of Thames River, Oct. 5, 1813 US military victory led by General William H. Harrison –Tecumseh was killed during this battle

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4 Naval Battles The Battle of Lake Erie was probably the most important naval battle of the war –After defeating the British, Captain Oliver Hazard Perry declared, We have met the enemy and they are ours Thomas Macdonough defeated a British fleet on Lake Champlain which resulted in a British retreat US Naval tradition develops during the War of 1812

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7 Washington, D.C. burned by British, 25th of August 1814 Dolly Madison escaped from White House and took many pieces of art, furniture from the White House before the British destroyed it.

8 U.S. Flag which flew over Fort McHenry to inspire Francis Scott Key to write the Star Spangled Banner. September 13 th, 1814 highlights

9 Battle of Fort McHenry, 1814 Oh Say Can You See By the Dawns Early Light… -- Francis Scott Key

10 10,000 British troops reached the mouth of the Mississippi River and were threatening the Louisiana Purchase.10,000 British troops reached the mouth of the Mississippi River and were threatening the Louisiana Purchase. 4,500 U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson, the British were defeated on January 8, 1815, 2 weeks after the Treaty of Ghent was negotiated to end the war.4,500 U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson, the British were defeated on January 8, 1815, 2 weeks after the Treaty of Ghent was negotiated to end the war. 10,000 British troops reached the mouth of the Mississippi River and were threatening the Louisiana Purchase.10,000 British troops reached the mouth of the Mississippi River and were threatening the Louisiana Purchase. 4,500 U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson, the British were defeated on January 8, 1815, 2 weeks after the Treaty of Ghent was negotiated to end the war.4,500 U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson, the British were defeated on January 8, 1815, 2 weeks after the Treaty of Ghent was negotiated to end the war.

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12 Considered greatest U.S. victory to that time Defeated Britishs best without help from any country Countries gained respect for the U.S. after this battle. Kept Louisiana Purchase under the control of the U.S. Considered greatest U.S. victory to that time Defeated Britishs best without help from any country Countries gained respect for the U.S. after this battle. Kept Louisiana Purchase under the control of the U.S.

13 The Treaty of Ghent War of 1812 is considered astalemate…Dec Peace commissioners in Ghent devised the following terms of peace – A halt to the fighting – The return of all conquered territory to the prewar borders – Recognition of the prewar boundary between Canada and the United States Treaty was ratified by the Senate

14 Radical NE Federalists met to discuss their grievances & find solutions to their problems : U.S. Govt. fighting an unnecessary war against the wrong enemy Sought financial assistance from Washington since their trade was at a standstill because British had placed a blockade around the Atlantic coastline of US New Englanders continued to trade with the British during the war Talked of secession or a separate peace proposal with England

15 Resolutions adopted by the convention resemble a modern day political platform: Constitutional amendments lessening the powers of Congress restoring Federalist influence by a minority veto 2/3s vote before an embargo, new western states could be admitted and war could be declared. Abolish 3/5 clause, limit presidents to one term, prohibit the election of two successive presidents from the same state

16 The Wars Legacy U.S. gained the respect of other nations U.S. came to accept Canada as a neighbor and a part of the British Empire The Federalist party came to an end as a national force Talk of nullification and secession in New England set a precedent that would later be used by the South Gained our neutrality and became isolated from Europe

17 The Wars Legacy Native Americans in the West were forced to surrender large areas of land and move west. More U.S. factories were built War heroes such as Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison would eventually become Presidents. Growth of American nationalism Enter a time period in our history called the Era of Good Feelings

18 The War of 1812 won new respect for America among many British. Michael Scott, a young lieutenant in the British navy wrote, I dont like Americans; I never did, and never shall like them…..I have no wish to eat with them, drink with them, deal with, or consort with them in any way; but let me tell the whole truth, nor fight with them, were it not for the laurels to be acquired, by overcoming an enemy so brave, determined and alert, and in every way so worthy on ones steel, as they have always proved.

19 1. Served two terms: 1817 to 1825 Called the Era of Good Feelings Called the Era of Good Feelings 2. Unite the nation promote nationalism American System American System --- link the country together Expansion of US Rush/Bagot Treaty Adams/Onis Treaty or Florida Purchase Treaty 3. Self Defense Doctrine: Monroe Doctrine, Sectional differences Missouri Compromise National oneness = Nationalism

20 UP CLOSE AND PERSONAL Born in Virginia in 1758, Attended the College of William and Mary, Fought with Continental Army Practiced law in Virginia. Elected United States Senator Helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase. Elected President in 1816 and served from 1817 to Era of Good Feelings President James Monroe

21 HCongresss attempt to unite the US National transportation system of roads, canals, steamships and rivers to 1850 roads, canals and rivers first forms of transportation--- Henry Clays American System HProvide economic growth Americans buying American goods American self-sufficiency. HProtective Tariff to promote infant industry Tariff of 1816 H2nd BUS to promote a stronger economy Rechartered in 1816

22 HSpirit of Nationalism in US patriotism or national oneness Country is united, confident, and growing , 9 states joined the original 13. HOne political party---Republican party HRespect from Europe H Monroe first president to visit all states. H Boston newspaper declared an Era of Good Feelings had began. But, time period was not free of problems.

23 Cultural Nationalism –Patriotic themes infused every aspect of American society from books and paintings of Revolutionary heroes to Noah Websters blue-backed speller that promoted patriotism Economic Nationalism AMERICAN SYSTEM –Running parallel with cultural nationalism was a political movement to support the growth of the nations economy AMERICAN SYSTEM Political Nationalism –Movement to bring about the support for national government is over the states. Supreme court decisions support the concept of national government over the states.

24 National Transportation system –Cumberland Road and Erie Canal first internal improvements to unite the US –the first steamboat on western waters was in –1800 to 1850 roads, canals and rivers first forms of transportation –1850 to 1860 the railroad is added The Land Act of 1820 –gave the West its wish by authorizing a buyer to purchase 80 acres of land at a minimum of $1.25 an acre in cash; –the West demanded transportation.

25 The Land Act of 1820 The Land Act of 1820 gave the West its wish by authorizing a buyer to purchase 80 acres of land at a minimum of $1.25 an acre in cash; the West demanded transportation

26 The Panic of 1819 Largely the fault of the Second Bank of the United States tightening of credit in an effort to control inflation –Many state banks closed –The value of money fell –There were large increases in unemployment, bankruptcies, and imprisonment for debt Depression was most severe in the West The economic crisis changed many Western voters political outlook

27 Help unite the country as well as improve the economy and the infant industry…. Because of the British blockade during the War of 1812, it was essential for internal transportation improvements.

28 Population shift from the east to the West Acquisition of Native Americans lands Land easy to obtain Economic pressures Improved transportation Immigration

29 New Questions and Issues Greatest importance to western states were: –Cheap money (easy credit) from state banks rather than from the Bank of the United States –Land made available at low prices by the government –Improved transportation Westerners could not agree whether to permit slavery or exclude it

30 Rush-Bagot Agreement ( ) –Treaty with Great Britain Shared Oregon Territory for 10 years the setting of the northern limits of the Louisiana Territory at the 49th parallel –US agreed to cede land above 49 th parallel –GB agreed to cede land below 49 th parallel Rush-Bagot Agreement ( ) –Treaty with Great Britain Shared Oregon Territory for 10 years the setting of the northern limits of the Louisiana Territory at the 49th parallel –US agreed to cede land above 49 th parallel –GB agreed to cede land below 49 th parallel

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32 Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1818 with Great Britain 49 th Parallel Agreed to joint occupation

33 Florida Becomes Part of US –After War of 1812, Spain had difficulty governing Florida –Seminole Indians, runaway slaves, and white outlaws conducted raids into U.S. territory and retreated to safety across the Florida border Florida Becomes Part of US –After War of 1812, Spain had difficulty governing Florida –Seminole Indians, runaway slaves, and white outlaws conducted raids into U.S. territory and retreated to safety across the Florida border President Monroe commissioned General Andrew Jackson to stop the raiders – Jackson led a force into Florida, destroyed Seminole villages, and hanged 2 Seminole chiefs –Jackson captured Pensacola and drove out the Spanish governor President Monroe commissioned General Andrew Jackson to stop the raiders – Jackson led a force into Florida, destroyed Seminole villages, and hanged 2 Seminole chiefs –Jackson captured Pensacola and drove out the Spanish governor

34 Adams-Onis Treaty (1818) –Spain turned over western Florida along with all to the east Claims in the Oregon Territory to the U.S. –US agreed to pay $5 million to Spain to give up any territorial claims to Texas Adams-Onis Treaty (1818) –Spain turned over western Florida along with all to the east Claims in the Oregon Territory to the U.S. –US agreed to pay $5 million to Spain to give up any territorial claims to Texas

35 Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1818 with Great Britain Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 with Spain 49 th Parallel Texas

36 Map expansion

37 Economy Leader ____________ Role of Government NORTHEAST Business and Manufacturing Daniel Webster _______________ Wanted Tariffs Backed internal improvements End to cheap public land Increasingly nationalistic Against Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must abolish it. SOUTH Cotton-growing John C. Calhoun _______________ Opposed tariffs and government spending on American System Increasingly supportive of states rights Pro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S. Govt. to try and abolish it. WEST Frontier agriculture Henry Clay ______________ Supported internal improvements and American System. Wanted cheap land Loyal to the U.S. Govt. Against slavery but some supported letting the people decide the slavery issue U.S. was becoming divided into 3 separate sections with each trying to promote their self-interest.

38 Economy Leader __________ Role of Government Economy Leader __________ Role of Government NORTHEAST Business and Manufacturing Daniel Webster ____________Business and Manufacturing Daniel Webster ____________ Wanted TariffsWanted Tariffs Backed internal improvementsBacked internal improvements Wanted end to cheap public landWanted end to cheap public land Increasingly nationalisticIncreasingly nationalistic Against Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must abolish it.Against Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must abolish it.

39 Economy Leader __________ Role of Government SOUTH Cotton growingCotton growing John C. CalhounJohn C. Calhoun_____________ Opposed tariffs and government spending on American SystemOpposed tariffs and government spending on American System Increasingly supportive of states rightsIncreasingly supportive of states rights Pro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S. Govt. to try and abolish it.Pro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S. Govt. to try and abolish it.

40 WEST Frontier agricultureFrontier agriculture Henry ClayHenry Clay_____________ Supported internal improvementsSupported internal improvements Wanted cheap landWanted cheap land Loyal to the U.S. Govt.Loyal to the U.S. Govt. Against slavery but some supported letting the people decide the slavery issueAgainst slavery but some supported letting the people decide the slavery issue Economy Leader __________ Role of Government

41 In 1819, Missouri, first part of the Louisiana Purchase to apply for statehood –Threatened balance of power in Congress 11 free states 11 slave states –The Tallmadge amendment prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri All slaves born in Missouri after the territory became a state would be freed at the age of 25. Passed by the House, not in the Senate. The North controlled the House, and the South had enough power to block it in the Senate. In 1819, Missouri, first part of the Louisiana Purchase to apply for statehood –Threatened balance of power in Congress 11 free states 11 slave states –The Tallmadge amendment prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri All slaves born in Missouri after the territory became a state would be freed at the age of 25. Passed by the House, not in the Senate. The North controlled the House, and the South had enough power to block it in the Senate.

42 –Missouri was to be admitted as a slaveholding state –Maine was to be admitted as a free state –In the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 36 30', slavery was prohibited –Missouri was to be admitted as a slaveholding state –Maine was to be admitted as a free state –In the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 36 30', slavery was prohibited After months of heated debate in Congress, Henry Clay won majority support for 3 bills that represented a compromise

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44 In 1819, Missouri became the first part of the Louisiana Purchase to apply for statehood –Threatened the balance of power in Congress 11 free states 11 slave states After months of heated debate in Congress, Henry Clay won majority support for 3 bills that represented a compromise –Missouri was to be admitted as a slaveholding state –Maine was to be admitted as a free state –In the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 36 30', slavery was prohibited In 1819, Missouri became the first part of the Louisiana Purchase to apply for statehood –Threatened the balance of power in Congress 11 free states 11 slave states After months of heated debate in Congress, Henry Clay won majority support for 3 bills that represented a compromise –Missouri was to be admitted as a slaveholding state –Maine was to be admitted as a free state –In the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 36 30', slavery was prohibited

45 Born in Virginia, 1755 Served as an officer with General Washington during the Revolution Attended College of William and Mary and became a practicing attorney. 2 nd cousin of Thomas Jefferson. Marshall became a committed Federalist where his court decisions would reflect the need for a strong national government over the states. Dominated court for 34 years, long after Federalist party died out.

46 Evolves As A Federalist 1.US troops suffer at Valley Forge Need a strong govt. to tax which AOC could not 2.Merchants refused to pay debts to British Need strong to govt. to demand obedience AOC could not 3. Shays Rebellion mobocracy Need a strong govt. to maintain order AOC could not

47 Marshall Evolves As A Federalist 4. French Revolution Importance of US Govt to maintain order 5.Controversial: Neutrality/Whiskey Rebellion Individuals should respect the office of the presidency even if one disagrees with decisions 6. XYZ Affair US Govt needed to be powerful enough to command respect from other nations. 7. Kentucky/Virginia Resolutions States not the final authority over law but SC 8. Appointed as Chief Justice Increase powers of SC and national govt. 9. Republicans took control of US Congress. As chief justice, implements Federalist principles.

48 JUDICIAL AUTHORITY Supreme Court has the power to declare a law unconstitutional with the principle of judicial review. NATIONALISM The National Government is over the states. PROPERTY RIGHTS Private property is sacred and contracts legal.

49 Marbury vs. Madison, 1803 –Case: William Marbury, a Federalist and a midnight appointment of President Adams, did not receive his commission from Sec. of State, James Madison. Marbury asked the SC to issue a writ of mandamus forcing Madison to deliver his commission. –Decision/Reason: Marshall dismissed suit, but in doing so struck down part of Judiciary Act of 1789 because SC had no authority to give Marbury his commission. declare laws of Congress unconstitutional. –Significance: Established precedent of judicial review and the Supreme Court, not states had power to declare laws of Congress unconstitutional.

50 Supreme Court Prior to this case, the Supreme Court had been the weakest of the three branches of government. nullify Earlier, the belief was the states could nullify a law (authority) 1803, the Supreme Court established its role as the final arbitrator (authority) of the meaning of the Constitution and its position of equality. judicial review By setting a precedent for judicial review or the Supreme Court can declare a law unconstitutional not the states or Congress. sent the message It also sent the message that the National Government is the last authority thus reinforcing Marshalls belief in a strong central government over the states.

51 Fletcher v. Peck (1810) –C–Case: involved Georgia legislature, bribed, granted 35 million acres in the Yazoo River, Mississippi to private speculators. Next legislature cancelled transaction. Appealed to the Supreme Court. –D–Decision/Reason: SC concluded a state could not pass legislation invalidating a contract thus protecting property rights against popular pressures. State law cannot impair contracts violates Constitution –S–Significance: Overturned a state decision because the legislative grant was a contract and national govt. is over the states.

52 Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 1819 –Case: Involved a law of NH that changed Dartmouth College from a privately chartered college into a public institution –Decision/Reason: SC struck down the state law as unconstitutional, arguing that a contract for a private corporation could not be altered by the state. Upheld the sanctity of contracts and private property. –Significance: Decision was important in assuring economic development and encouraging investment in corporations. In addition, it set a precedent for the Supreme Courts overturning acts of state legislatures and state courts.

53 McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) –Case: The state of MD tried to collect a tax from the Second Bank of the United States –Decision/Reason: Using a loose interpretation of the Constitution, Marshall ruled that the federal government had the implied power to create the bank (which was in question) –Significance: A state could not tax a federal institution because the power to tax is the power to destroy and that federal laws are supreme over state laws

54 Cohens v. Virginia (1821) –Case: In VA, the Cohens were convicted of selling Washington, D.C. lottery tickets authorized by Congress –Decision/Reason: Marshall and the Court upheld the conviction. Case established the principle that the SC could review a state courts decision involving any of the powers of the federal government –Significance: Solidified the belief that the Supreme Court has the last and final say in law.

55 Gibbons v. Ogden (1821) –Case: NY state granted a monopoly to a steamboat company that conflicted with a charter authorized by Congress –Decision/Reason: Marshall ruled NY monopoly was unconstitutional, establishing the federal govts broad control of interstate commerce. Congress regulates commerce. –Significance: The decision secures the concept of a common market and prevents states from impeding (disrupting) commerce.

56 Shaping the Government Martin v. Hunters Lease (1816) –The Supreme Court established the principle that it had jurisdiction over state courts in cases involving constitutional rights

57 JUDICIAL AUTHORITY Marbury vs. Madison NATIONALISM McCulloch vs. Maryland Gibbons vs. Ogden Cohens vs. Virginia PROPERTY RIGHTS Dartmouth College vs. Woodward Fletcher vs. Peck

58 In foreign affairs Monroe proclaimed the fundamental policy that bears his name, Monroe Doctrine. Monroe was responding to the threat that Europe might try to aid Spain in winning back her former Latin American colonies. In foreign affairs Monroe proclaimed the fundamental policy that bears his name, Monroe Doctrine. Monroe was responding to the threat that Europe might try to aid Spain in winning back her former Latin American colonies. monroe doctrine Monroe and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams wanted to protect new republics in the Western Hemisphere. Great Britain, with its powerful navy, also opposed re- conquest of Latin America and suggested that the United States join in proclaiming "hands off." Monroe and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams wanted to protect new republics in the Western Hemisphere. Great Britain, with its powerful navy, also opposed re- conquest of Latin America and suggested that the United States join in proclaiming "hands off."

59 Adams advised, "It would be more candid... to avow our principles explicitly to Russia and France, than to come in as a cock-boat in the wake of the British man-of-war." Monroe accepted Adams's advice. Adams advised, "It would be more candid... to avow our principles explicitly to Russia and France, than to come in as a cock-boat in the wake of the British man-of-war." Monroe accepted Adams's advice. monroe doctrine Not only must Latin America be left alone, he warned, but also Russia must not encroach southward on the Pacific coast. "... the American continents," He stated, "by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European Power." Not only must Latin America be left alone, he warned, but also Russia must not encroach southward on the Pacific coast. "... the American continents," He stated, "by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European Power."

60 Western Hemisphere or the Americas.

61 New Latin American countries were formed from successful revolutions. US protector of new democracies in the Western Hemisphere New Latin American countries were formed from successful revolutions. US protector of new democracies in the Western Hemisphere

62 Referred to as Americas Self Defense Doctrine. It is a continuation of President Washingtons neutrality and isolationist policies. Past problems with Europe led the US to declare the Americas off-limits to Europe Referred to as Americas Self Defense Doctrine. It is a continuation of President Washingtons neutrality and isolationist policies. Past problems with Europe led the US to declare the Americas off-limits to Europe US protector of new democracies in the Western Hemisphere No European Colonization in the Americas US protector of new democracies in the Western Hemisphere No European Colonization in the Americas US will stay out of European affairs Monroe Doctrine US recognized existing European Colonies


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