4Naval BattlesThe Battle of Lake Erie was probably the most important naval battle of the warAfter defeating the British, Captain Oliver Hazard Perry declared, “We have met the enemy and they are ours”Thomas Macdonough defeated a British fleet on Lake Champlain which resulted in a British retreatUS Naval tradition develops during the War of 1812
7HIGHLIGHTS OF THE WAR OF 1812 Dolly Madison escaped from White House and took many pieces of art, furniture from the White House before the British destroyed it.Washington, D.C. burned by British, 25th of August 1814
8HIGHLIGHTS OF THE WAR OF 1812 U.S. Flag which flew over Fort McHenry to inspire Francis Scott Key to write the Star Spangled Banner. September 13th, 1814
9Battle of Fort McHenry, 1814Oh Say Can You See By the Dawn’s Early Light… Francis Scott Key
10BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS10,000 British troops reached the mouth of the Mississippi River and were threatening the Louisiana Purchase.4,500 U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson, the British were defeated on January 8, 1815, 2 weeks after the Treaty of Ghent was negotiated to end the war.
12Considered greatest U.S. victory to that time BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANSConsidered greatest U.S. victory to that timeDefeated British’s best without help from any countryCountries gained respect for the U.S. after this battle.Kept Louisiana Purchase under the control of the U.S.
13The Treaty of Ghent War of 1812 is considered a “stalemate”…Dec. 1814 Peace commissioners in Ghent devised the following terms of peaceA halt to the fightingThe return of all conquered territory to the prewar bordersRecognition of the prewar boundary between Canada and the United StatesTreaty was ratified by the Senate
14H A R T F O R D C O N V E N T I O NRadical NE Federalists met to discuss their grievances & find solutions to their problems:U.S. Govt. fighting an unnecessary war against the wrong enemySought financial assistance from Washington since their trade was at a standstill because British had placed a blockade around the Atlantic coastline of USNew Englanders continued to trade with the British during the warTalked of secession or a separate peace proposal with England
15H A R T F O R D C O N V E N T I O NResolutions adopted by the convention resemble a modern day political platform:Constitutional amendments lessening the powers of Congressrestoring Federalist influence by a minority veto2/3’s vote before an embargo, new western states could be admitted and war could be declared.Abolish 3/5 clause, limit presidents to one term, prohibit the election of two successive presidents from the same state
16The War’s Legacy U.S. gained the respect of other nations U.S. came to accept Canada as a neighbor and a part of the British EmpireThe Federalist party came to an end as a national forceTalk of nullification and secession in New England set a precedent that would later be used by the SouthGained our neutrality and became isolated from Europe
17The War’s LegacyNative Americans in the West were forced to surrender large areas of land and move west.More U.S. factories were builtWar heroes such as Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison would eventually become Presidents.Growth of American nationalismEnter a time period in our history called the “Era of Good Feelings”
18OUTCOMES OF WAR OF 1812The War of 1812 won new respect for America among many British. Michael Scott, a young lieutenant in the British navy wrote,“I don’t like Americans; I never did, and never shall like them…..I have no wish to eat with them, drink with them, deal with, or consort with them in any way; but let me tell the whole truth, nor fight with them, were it not for the laurels to be acquired, by overcoming an enemy so brave, determined and alert, and in every way so worthy on one’s steel, as they have always proved.
19“National oneness” = Nationalism MONROE'S PRESIDENCY1. Served two terms: to 1825Called the Era of Good Feelings2. Unite the nation ”promote nationalism”American System --- link the country togetherExpansion of USRush/Bagot TreatyAdams/Onis Treaty or Florida Purchase Treaty3. Self Defense Doctrine: Monroe Doctrine, 18234. Sectional differencesMissouri Compromise“National oneness” = Nationalism
20President James Monroe 1817 TO 1825UP CLOSE AND PERSONALBorn in Virginia in 1758,Attended the College of William and Mary,Fought with Continental ArmyPracticed law in Virginia.Elected United States SenatorHelped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase.Elected President in 1816 and served from 1817 to 1825.Era of Good FeelingsPresident James Monroe
21Henry Clay’s American System Congress’s attempt to unite the USNational transportation system of roads, canals, steamships and rivers.1800 to 1850 roads, canals and rivers first forms of transportation---Provide economic growthAmericans buying American goodsAmerican self-sufficiency.Protective Tariff to promote infant industryTariff of 18162nd BUS to promote a stronger economyRechartered in 1816
22ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS1817 TO 1825Spirit of Nationalism in USpatriotism or national onenessCountry is united, confident, and growing, 9 states joined the original 13.One political party---Republican partyRespect from EuropeMonroe first president to visit all states.Boston newspaper declared an “Era of Good Feelings” had began.But, time period was not free of problems.
23Political Nationalism ERA OF GOOD FEELINGSCultural NationalismPatriotic themes infused every aspect of American society from books and paintings of Revolutionary heroes to Noah Webster’s blue-backed speller that promoted patriotismEconomic NationalismRunning parallel with cultural nationalism was a political movement to support the growth of the nation’s economy AMERICAN SYSTEMPolitical NationalismMovement to bring about the support for national government is over the states. Supreme court decisions support the concept of national government over the states.
24National Transportation system ERA OF GOOD FEELINGSNational Transportation systemCumberland Road and Erie Canal first internal improvements to unite the USthe first steamboat on western waters was in 1811.1800 to 1850 roads, canals and rivers first forms of transportation1850 to 1860 the railroad is addedThe Land Act of 1820gave the West its wish by authorizing a buyer to purchase 80 acres of land at a minimum of $1.25 an acre in cash;the West demanded transportation.
25The Land Act of 1820 gave the West its wish by authorizing a buyer to purchase 80 acres of land at a minimum of $1.25 an acre in cash; the West demanded transportation
26ERA OF GOOD FEELINGSThe Panic of 1819Largely the fault of the Second Bank of the United States’ tightening of credit in an effort to control inflationMany state banks closedThe value of money fellThere were large increases in unemployment, bankruptcies, and imprisonment for debtDepression was most severe in the WestThe economic crisis changed many Western voters’ political outlook
27Help unite the country as well as improve the economy and the infant industry…. Because of the British blockade during the War of 1812, it was essential for internal transportation improvements.
28Population shift from the east to the West Reasons forWestward MovementPopulation shift from the east to the WestAcquisition of Native Americans’ landsLand easy to obtainEconomic pressuresImproved transportationImmigration
29New Questions and Issues ERA OF GOOD FEELINGSNew Questions and IssuesGreatest importance to western states were:“Cheap money” (easy credit) from state banks rather than from the Bank of the United StatesLand made available at low prices by the governmentImproved transportationWesterners could not agree whether to permit slavery or exclude it
30Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817-18) Westward ExpansionRush-Bagot Agreement ( )Treaty with Great BritainShared Oregon Territory for 10 yearsthe setting of the northern limits of the Louisiana Territory at the 49th parallelUS agreed to cede land above 49th parallelGB agreed to cede land below 49th parallel
3249th Parallel Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1818 with Great Britain Agreed to joint occupation
33Westward Expansion Florida Becomes Part of US After War of 1812, Spain had difficulty governing FloridaSeminole Indians, runaway slaves, and white outlaws conducted raids into U.S. territory and retreated to safety across the Florida borderPresident Monroe commissioned General Andrew Jackson to stop the raidersJackson led a force into Florida, destroyed Seminole villages, and hanged 2 Seminole chiefsJackson captured Pensacola and drove out the Spanish governor
34Adams-Onis Treaty (1818) Westward Expansion Spain turned over western Florida along with all to the eastClaims in the Oregon Territory to the U.S.US agreedto pay $5 million to Spainto give up any territorial claims to Texas
3549th Parallel Texas Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1818 with Great Britain Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 with SpainTexas
37SECTIONALISMU.S. was becoming divided into 3 separate sections with each trying to promote their self-interest.SOUTHCotton-growing John C. Calhoun_______________Opposed tariffs and government spending on American SystemIncreasingly supportive of states’ rightsPro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S. Govt. to try and abolish it.NORTHEASTBusiness and Manufacturing Daniel Webster _______________Wanted TariffsBacked internal improvementsEnd to cheap public landIncreasingly nationalisticAgainst Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must abolish it.WESTFrontier agriculture Henry Clay______________Supported internal improvements and American System.Wanted cheap landLoyal to the U.S. Govt.Against slavery but some supported letting the people decide the slavery issueEconomy Leader____________Role of Government
38SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES NORTHEASTBusiness and Manufacturing Daniel Webster ____________Wanted TariffsBacked internal improvementsWanted end to cheap public landIncreasingly nationalisticAgainst Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must abolish it.Economy Leader__________Role of Government
39SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES SOUTHCotton growingJohn C. Calhoun_____________Opposed tariffs and government spending on American SystemIncreasingly supportive of states’ rightsPro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S. Govt. to try and abolish it.Economy Leader__________Role of Government
40SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES Supported internal improvements WESTFrontier agricultureHenry Clay_____________Supported internal improvementsWanted cheap landLoyal to the U.S. Govt.Against slavery but some supported letting the people decide the slavery issueEconomy Leader__________Role of Government
41MISSOURI COMPROMISEIn 1819, Missouri, first part of the Louisiana Purchase to apply for statehoodThreatened balance of power in Congress11 free states11 slave statesThe Tallmadge amendmentprohibited the further introduction of slaves into MissouriAll slaves born in Missouri after the territory became a state would be freed at the age of 25.Passed by the House, not in the Senate.The North controlled the House, and the South had enough power to block it in the Senate.
42MISSOURI COMPROMISEAfter months of heated debate in Congress, Henry Clay won majority support for 3 bills that represented a compromiseMissouri was to be admitted as a slaveholding stateMaine was to be admitted as a free stateIn the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 3630', slavery was prohibited
44MISSOURI COMPROMISEIn 1819, Missouri became the first part of the Louisiana Purchase to apply for statehoodThreatened the balance of power in Congress11 free states11 slave statesAfter months of heated debate in Congress, Henry Clay won majority support for 3 bills that represented a compromiseMissouri was to be admitted as a slaveholding stateMaine was to be admitted as a free stateIn the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 3630', slavery was prohibited
45JOHN MARSHALL Born in Virginia, 1755 Served as an officer with General Washington during the RevolutionAttended College of William and Mary and became a practicing attorney.2nd cousin of Thomas Jefferson.Marshall became a committed Federalist where his court decisions would reflect the need for a strong national government over the states.Dominated court for 34 years, long after Federalist party died out.
46Evolves As A Federalist JOHN MARSHALLEvolves As A FederalistUS troops suffer at Valley ForgeNeed a strong govt. to tax which AOC could notMerchants refused to pay debts to BritishNeed strong to govt. to demand obedience AOC could not3. Shay’s Rebellion “mobocracy”Need a strong govt. to maintain order AOC could not
47Marshall Evolves As A Federalist 4. French RevolutionImportance of US Govt to maintain orderControversial: Neutrality/Whiskey RebellionIndividuals should respect the office of the presidency even if one disagrees with decisions6. XYZ AffairUS Govt needed to be powerful enough to command respect from other nations.7. Kentucky/Virginia ResolutionsStates not the final authority over law but SC8. Appointed as Chief JusticeIncrease powers of SC and national govt.9. Republicans took control of US Congress.As chief justice, implements Federalist principles.
48JUDICIAL AUTHORITY NATIONALISM PROPERTY RIGHTS MARSHALL'S DECISIONSJUDICIAL AUTHORITYSupreme Court has the power to declare a law unconstitutional with the principle of judicial review.NATIONALISMThe National Government is over the states.PROPERTY RIGHTSPrivate property is sacred and contracts legal.
49MARSHALL'S DECISIONS Marbury vs. Madison, 1803 Case: William Marbury, a Federalist and a “midnight appointment” of President Adams, did not receive his commission from Sec. of State, James Madison. Marbury asked the SC to issue a “writ of mandamus” forcing Madison to deliver his commission.Decision/Reason: Marshall dismissed suit, but in doing so struck down part of Judiciary Act of 1789 because SC had no authority to give Marbury his commission.Significance: Established precedent of “judicial review” and the Supreme Court, not states had power to declare laws of Congress unconstitutional.
50Earlier, the belief was the states could nullify a law MARBURY VS MADISONPrior to this case, the Supreme Court had been the weakest of the three branches of government.Earlier, the belief was the states could nullify a law1803, the Supreme Court established its role as the final arbitrator (authority) of the meaning of the Constitution and its position of equality.By setting a precedent for judicial review or the Supreme Court can declare a law unconstitutional not the states or Congress.It also “sent the message” that the National Government is the last authority thus reinforcing Marshall’s belief in a strong central government over the states.
51Fletcher v. Peck (1810) MARSHALL'S DECISIONS Case: involved Georgia legislature, bribed, granted 35 million acres in the Yazoo River, Mississippi to private speculators. Next legislature cancelled transaction. Appealed to the Supreme Court.Decision/Reason: SC concluded a state could not pass legislation invalidating a contract thus protecting property rights against popular pressures. State law cannot impair contracts violates ConstitutionSignificance: Overturned a state decision because the legislative grant was a contract and national govt. is over the states.
52Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 1819 MARSHALL'S DECISIONSDartmouth College v. Woodward, 1819Case: Involved a law of NH that changed Dartmouth College from a privately chartered college into a public institutionDecision/Reason: SC struck down the state law as unconstitutional, arguing that a contract for a private corporation could not be altered by the state. Upheld the sanctity of contracts and private property.Significance: Decision was important in assuring economic development and encouraging investment in corporations. In addition, it set a precedent for the Supreme Court’s overturning acts of state legislatures and state courts.
53McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) MARSHALL'S DECISIONSMcCulloch v. Maryland (1819)Case: The state of MD tried to collect a tax from the Second Bank of the United StatesDecision/Reason: Using a loose interpretation of the Constitution, Marshall ruled that the federal government had the implied power to create the bank (which was in question)Significance: A state could not tax a federal institution because “the power to tax is the power to destroy” and that federal laws are supreme over state laws
54Cohens v. Virginia (1821) MARSHALL'S DECISIONS Case: In VA, the Cohens were convicted of selling Washington, D.C. lottery tickets authorized by CongressDecision/Reason: Marshall and the Court upheld the conviction. Case established the principle that the SC could review a state court’s decision involving any of the powers of the federal governmentSignificance: Solidified the belief that the Supreme Court has the last and final say in law.
55Gibbons v. Ogden (1821) MARSHALL'S DECISIONS Case: NY state granted a monopoly to a steamboat company that conflicted with a charter authorized by CongressDecision/Reason: Marshall ruled NY monopoly was unconstitutional, establishing the federal govt’s broad control of interstate commerce. Congress regulates commerce.Significance: The decision secures the concept of a common market and prevents states from impeding (disrupting) commerce.
56Shaping the Government MARSHALL'S DECISIONSShaping the GovernmentMartin v. Hunter’s Lease (1816)The Supreme Court established the principle that it had jurisdiction over state courts in cases involving constitutional rights
57Dartmouth College vs. Woodward MARSHALL'S DECISIONSJUDICIAL AUTHORITYMarbury vs. MadisonNATIONALISMMcCulloch vs. MarylandGibbons vs. OgdenCohens vs. VirginiaPROPERTY RIGHTSDartmouth College vs. WoodwardFletcher vs. Peck
58monroe doctrineMONROE DOCTRINEIn foreign affairs Monroe proclaimed the fundamental policy that bears his name, Monroe Doctrine.Monroe was responding to the threat that Europe might try to aid Spain in winning back her former Latin American colonies.Monroe and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams wanted to protect new “republics” in the Western Hemisphere.Great Britain, with its powerful navy, also opposed re-conquest of Latin America and suggested that the United States join in proclaiming "hands off."
59Monroe accepted Adams's advice. monroe doctrineMONROE DOCTRINEAdams advised, "It would be more candid ... to avow our principles explicitly to Russia and France, than to come in as a cock-boat in the wake of the British man-of-war."Monroe accepted Adams's advice.Not only must Latin America be left alone, he warned, but also Russia must not encroach southward on the Pacific coast. ". . . the American continents,"He stated, "by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European Power."
61New Latin American countries were formed from successful revolutions. US protector of new democracies in the Western Hemisphere
62MONROE DOCTRINE Referred to as America’s Self Defense Doctrine. It is a continuation of President Washington’s neutrality and isolationist policies.Past problems with Europe led the US to declare the Americas off-limits to EuropeUS protector of new democracies in the Western HemisphereNo European Colonization in the AmericasUS recognized existing European ColoniesResponding to Russian territorial claims along the northern Pacific coast, and concerned that European nations would attempt to seize recently independent Latin American states, President James Monroe announced a new national policy. No new colonies would be allowed in the Americas, and European powers were not to interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere. This mural depicts a discussion among the president and members of his cabinet; from left to right are President James Monroe, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, Attorney General William Wirt, Secretary of War John Calhoun, and Secretary of the Navy Samuel L. Southard.Monroe DoctrineUS will stay out of European affairs