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C.P. American History Chapter 7 Growth and Division 1816-1832.

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Presentation on theme: "C.P. American History Chapter 7 Growth and Division 1816-1832."— Presentation transcript:

1 C.P. American History Chapter 7 Growth and Division

2 HSpirit of Nationalism in US patriotism or national oneness Country is united, confident, and growing , 9 states joined the original 13. HOne political party---Republican party HRespect from Europe H Monroe first president to visit all states. H Boston newspaper declared an Era of Good Feelings had began. But, time period was not free of problems.

3 Cultural Nationalism – Patriotic themes infused every aspect of American society from books and paintings of Revolutionary heroes to Noah Websters blue-backed speller that promoted patriotism Economic Nationalism AMERICAN SYSTEM – Running parallel with cultural nationalism was a political movement to support the growth of the nations economy AMERICAN SYSTEM Political Nationalism – Movement to bring about the support for national government is over the states. Supreme court decisions support the concept of national government over the states.

4 1. Served two terms: 1817 to 1825 Called the Era of Good Feelings Called the Era of Good Feelings 2. Unite the nation promote nationalism American System American System --- link the country together Expansion of US Rush/Bagot Treaty Adams/Onis Treaty or Florida Purchase Treaty 3. Self Defense Doctrine: Monroe Doctrine, Sectional differences Missouri Compromise National oneness = Nationalism

5 UP CLOSE AND PERSONAL Born in Virginia in 1758, Attended the College of William and Mary, Fought with Continental Army Practiced law in Virginia. Elected United States Senator Helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase. Elected President in 1816 and served from 1817 to Era of Good Feelings President James Monroe

6 National Transportation system – Cumberland Road and Erie Canal first internal improvements to unite the US – the first steamboat on western waters was in – 1800 to 1850 roads, canals and rivers first forms of transportation – 1850 to 1860 the railroad is added The Land Act of 1820 – gave the West its wish by authorizing a buyer to purchase 80 acres of land at a minimum of $1.25 an acre in cash; – the West demanded transportation.

7 Help unite the country as well as improve the economy and the infant industry…. Because of the British blockade during the War of 1812, it was essential for internal transportation improvements.

8 The Panic of 1819 Largely the fault of the Second Bank of the United States tightening of credit in an effort to control inflation – Many state banks closed – The value of money fell – There were large increases in unemployment, bankruptcies, and imprisonment for debt Depression was most severe in the West The economic crisis changed many Western voters political outlook

9 HCongresss attempt to unite the US National transportation system of roads, canals, steamships and rivers to 1850 roads, canals and rivers first forms of transportation--- Henry Clays American System HProvide economic growth Americans buying American goods American self-sufficiency. HProtective Tariff to promote infant industry Tariff of 1816 H2nd BUS to promote a stronger economy Rechartered in 1816

10 JUDICIAL AUTHORITY Supreme Court has the power to declare a law unconstitutional with the principle of judicial review. NATIONALISM The National Government is over the states. PROPERTY RIGHTS Private property is sacred and contracts legal.

11 Marbury vs. Madison, 1803 – Case: William Marbury, a Federalist and a midnight appointment of President Adams, did not receive his commission from Sec. of State, James Madison. Marbury asked the SC to issue a writ of mandamus forcing Madison to deliver his commission. – Decision/Reason: Marshall dismissed suit, but in doing so struck down part of Judiciary Act of 1789 because SC had no authority to give Marbury his commission. declare laws of Congress unconstitutional. – Significance: Established precedent of judicial review and the Supreme Court, not states had power to declare laws of Congress unconstitutional.

12 Supreme Court Prior to this case, the Supreme Court had been the weakest of the three branches of government. nullify Earlier, the belief was the states could nullify a law (authority) 1803, the Supreme Court established its role as the final arbitrator (authority) of the meaning of the Constitution and its position of equality. judicial review By setting a precedent for judicial review or the Supreme Court can declare a law unconstitutional not the states or Congress. sent the message It also sent the message that the National Government is the last authority thus reinforcing Marshalls belief in a strong central government over the states.

13 Fletcher v. Peck (1810) –C–Case: involved Georgia legislature, bribed, granted 35 million acres in the Yazoo River, Mississippi to private speculators. Next legislature cancelled transaction. Appealed to the Supreme Court. –D–Decision/Reason: SC concluded a state could not pass legislation invalidating a contract thus protecting property rights against popular pressures. State law cannot impair contracts violates Constitution –S–Significance: Overturned a state decision because the legislative grant was a contract and national govt. is over the states.

14 Shaping the Government Martin v. Hunters Lease (1816) – The Supreme Court established the principle that it had jurisdiction over state courts in cases involving constitutional rights

15 McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) – Case: The state of MD tried to collect a tax from the Second Bank of the United States – Decision/Reason: Using a loose interpretation of the Constitution, Marshall ruled that the federal government had the implied power to create the bank (which was in question) – Significance: A state could not tax a federal institution because the power to tax is the power to destroy and that federal laws are supreme over state laws

16 Cohens v. Virginia (1821) – Case: In VA, the Cohens were convicted of selling Washington, D.C. lottery tickets authorized by Congress – Decision/Reason: Marshall and the Court upheld the conviction. Case established the principle that the SC could review a state courts decision involving any of the powers of the federal government – Significance: Solidified the belief that the Supreme Court has the last and final say in law.

17 Gibbons v. Ogden (1821) – Case: NY state granted a monopoly to a steamboat company that conflicted with a charter authorized by Congress – Decision/Reason: Marshall ruled NY monopoly was unconstitutional, establishing the federal govts broad control of interstate commerce. Congress regulates commerce. – Significance: The decision secures the concept of a common market and prevents states from impeding (disrupting) commerce.

18 JUDICIAL AUTHORITY Marbury vs. Madison NATIONALISM McCulloch vs. Maryland Gibbons vs. Ogden Cohens vs. Virginia PROPERTY RIGHTS Dartmouth College vs. Woodward Fletcher vs. Peck

19 Florida Becomes Part of US – After War of 1812, Spain had difficulty governing Florida – Seminole Indians, runaway slaves, and white outlaws conducted raids into U.S. territory and retreated to safety across the Florida border Florida Becomes Part of US – After War of 1812, Spain had difficulty governing Florida – Seminole Indians, runaway slaves, and white outlaws conducted raids into U.S. territory and retreated to safety across the Florida border President Monroe commissioned General Andrew Jackson to stop the raiders – Jackson led a force into Florida, destroyed Seminole villages, and hanged 2 Seminole chiefs –Jackson captured Pensacola and drove out the Spanish governor President Monroe commissioned General Andrew Jackson to stop the raiders – Jackson led a force into Florida, destroyed Seminole villages, and hanged 2 Seminole chiefs –Jackson captured Pensacola and drove out the Spanish governor

20 Adams-Onis Treaty (1818) – Spain turned over western Florida along with all to the east Claims in the Oregon Territory to the U.S. – US agreed to pay $5 million to Spain to give up any territorial claims to Texas Adams-Onis Treaty (1818) – Spain turned over western Florida along with all to the east Claims in the Oregon Territory to the U.S. – US agreed to pay $5 million to Spain to give up any territorial claims to Texas

21 Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1818 with Great Britain Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 with Spain 49 th Parallel Texas

22 Map expansion

23 In foreign affairs Monroe proclaimed the fundamental policy that bears his name, Monroe Doctrine. Monroe was responding to the threat that Europe might try to aid Spain in winning back her former Latin American colonies. In foreign affairs Monroe proclaimed the fundamental policy that bears his name, Monroe Doctrine. Monroe was responding to the threat that Europe might try to aid Spain in winning back her former Latin American colonies. monroe doctrine Monroe and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams wanted to protect new republics in the Western Hemisphere. Great Britain, with its powerful navy, also opposed re- conquest of Latin America and suggested that the United States join in proclaiming "hands off." Monroe and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams wanted to protect new republics in the Western Hemisphere. Great Britain, with its powerful navy, also opposed re- conquest of Latin America and suggested that the United States join in proclaiming "hands off."

24 Adams advised, "It would be more candid... to avow our principles explicitly to Russia and France, than to come in as a cock-boat in the wake of the British man-of-war." Monroe accepted Adams's advice. Adams advised, "It would be more candid... to avow our principles explicitly to Russia and France, than to come in as a cock-boat in the wake of the British man-of-war." Monroe accepted Adams's advice. monroe doctrine Not only must Latin America be left alone, he warned, but also Russia must not encroach southward on the Pacific coast. "... the American continents," He stated, "by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European Power." Not only must Latin America be left alone, he warned, but also Russia must not encroach southward on the Pacific coast. "... the American continents," He stated, "by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European Power."

25 Western Hemisphere or the Americas.

26 New Latin American countries were formed from successful revolutions. US protector of new democracies in the Western Hemisphere New Latin American countries were formed from successful revolutions. US protector of new democracies in the Western Hemisphere

27 Referred to as Americas Self Defense Doctrine. It is a continuation of President Washingtons neutrality and isolationist policies. Past problems with Europe led the US to declare the Americas off-limits to Europe Referred to as Americas Self Defense Doctrine. It is a continuation of President Washingtons neutrality and isolationist policies. Past problems with Europe led the US to declare the Americas off-limits to Europe US protector of new democracies in the Western Hemisphere No European Colonization in the Americas US protector of new democracies in the Western Hemisphere No European Colonization in the Americas US will stay out of European affairs Monroe Doctrine US recognized existing European Colonies

28 Actions What actions strengthened the federal government? Creation of new national bank creation of protective tariff Decisions by Supreme Court established dominance of the nation over states Proclamation of the Monroe Doctrine

29 New Questions and Issues Greatest importance to western states were: – Cheap money (easy credit) from state banks rather than from the Bank of the United States – Land made available at low prices by the government – Improved transportation Westerners could not agree whether to permit slavery or exclude it

30 Economy Leader ____________ Role of Government NORTHEAST Business and Manufacturing Daniel Webster _______________ Wanted Tariffs Backed internal improvements End to cheap public land Increasingly nationalistic Against Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must abolish it. SOUTH Cotton-growing John C. Calhoun _______________ Opposed tariffs and government spending on American System Increasingly supportive of states rights Pro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S. Govt. to try and abolish it. WEST Frontier agriculture Henry Clay ______________ Supported internal improvements and American System. Wanted cheap land Loyal to the U.S. Govt. Against slavery but some supported letting the people decide the slavery issue U.S. was becoming divided into 3 separate sections with each trying to promote their self-interest.

31 Economy Leader __________ Role of Government Economy Leader __________ Role of Government NORTHEAST Business and Manufacturing Daniel Webster ____________Business and Manufacturing Daniel Webster ____________ Wanted TariffsWanted Tariffs Backed internal improvementsBacked internal improvements Wanted end to cheap public landWanted end to cheap public land Increasingly nationalisticIncreasingly nationalistic Against Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must abolish it.Against Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must abolish it.

32 Economy Leader __________ Role of Government SOUTH Cotton growingCotton growing John C. CalhounJohn C. Calhoun_____________ Opposed tariffs and government spending on American SystemOpposed tariffs and government spending on American System Increasingly supportive of states rightsIncreasingly supportive of states rights Pro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S. Govt. to try and abolish it.Pro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S. Govt. to try and abolish it.

33 WEST Frontier agricultureFrontier agriculture Henry ClayHenry Clay_____________ Supported internal improvementsSupported internal improvements Wanted cheap landWanted cheap land Loyal to the U.S. Govt.Loyal to the U.S. Govt. Against slavery but some supported letting the people decide the slavery issueAgainst slavery but some supported letting the people decide the slavery issue Economy Leader __________ Role of Government

34 In 1819, Missouri, first part of the Louisiana Purchase to apply for statehood – Threatened balance of power in Congress 11 free states 11 slave states – The Tallmadge amendment prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri All slaves born in Missouri after the territory became a state would be freed at the age of 25. Passed by the House, not in the Senate. The North controlled the House, and the South had enough power to block it in the Senate. In 1819, Missouri, first part of the Louisiana Purchase to apply for statehood – Threatened balance of power in Congress 11 free states 11 slave states – The Tallmadge amendment prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri All slaves born in Missouri after the territory became a state would be freed at the age of 25. Passed by the House, not in the Senate. The North controlled the House, and the South had enough power to block it in the Senate.

35 – Missouri was to be admitted as a slaveholding state – Maine was to be admitted as a free state – In the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 36 30', slavery was prohibited – Missouri was to be admitted as a slaveholding state – Maine was to be admitted as a free state – In the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 36 30', slavery was prohibited After months of heated debate in Congress, Henry Clay won majority support for 3 bills that represented a compromise

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37 In 1819, Missouri became the first part of the Louisiana Purchase to apply for statehood –Threatened the balance of power in Congress 11 free states 11 slave states After months of heated debate in Congress, Henry Clay won majority support for 3 bills that represented a compromise –Missouri was to be admitted as a slaveholding state –Maine was to be admitted as a free state –In the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 36 30', slavery was prohibited In 1819, Missouri became the first part of the Louisiana Purchase to apply for statehood –Threatened the balance of power in Congress 11 free states 11 slave states After months of heated debate in Congress, Henry Clay won majority support for 3 bills that represented a compromise –Missouri was to be admitted as a slaveholding state –Maine was to be admitted as a free state –In the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 36 30', slavery was prohibited

38 Picking cotton in Oklahoma, USA, in the 1890sOklahoma

39 Picking cotton in Georgia, United States, in 1943Georgia

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41 Hoeing a cotton field to remove weeds, Greene County, Georgia, USA, 1941Greene County, Georgia

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