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UP CLOSE AND PERSONAL Born in Virginia in 1758 Attended the College of William and Mary Fought with Continental Army Practiced law in Virginia Elected.

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Presentation on theme: "UP CLOSE AND PERSONAL Born in Virginia in 1758 Attended the College of William and Mary Fought with Continental Army Practiced law in Virginia Elected."— Presentation transcript:

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2 UP CLOSE AND PERSONAL Born in Virginia in 1758 Attended the College of William and Mary Fought with Continental Army Practiced law in Virginia Elected United States Senator Helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase Elected President in 1816 and served from 1817 to 1825 Era of Good Feelings President James Monroe

3 HCultural Nationalism  Patriotic themes infused every aspect of American society from books and paintings of Revolutionary heroes to Noah Webster’s blue-backed speller that promoted patriotism HEconomic Nationalism AMERICAN SYSTEM  Running parallel with cultural nationalism was a political movement to support the growth of the nation’s economy AMERICAN SYSTEM HPolitical Nationalism  Movement to bring about the support for national government over the states. Supreme court decisions support the concept of national government over the states.

4 HMcCulluch v. Maryland  Maryland attempted to place a tax on the Federal Bank; Supreme Court ruled that States could not interfere with Federal Institutions. HDartmouth College v. Woodward  Between Dartmouth College and New Hampshire. Court ruled that the charter of the college was a private contract, and that NH could not change it. HGibbons v. Ogden  NY tried to give a monopoly to a company for carrying passengers on the Hudson. Since the ferries stopped in NJ as well, this fell under interstate commerce so only the Federal Government could regulate it. Supreme Court Cases

5  Summary:  In a Federal System, power is not created; it is transferred. These three court cases transferred power from the States, and put them under Federal Control.  Result?  Federal government became stronger while State governments lost their power. Supreme Court Cases

6 A series of treaties were signed in order to ensure the expansion of the United States:

7 Rush-Bagot Agreement Treaty with Great Britain Shared Oregon Territory for 10 years Set the northern limits of the Louisiana Territory at the 49th parallel –US agreed to cede land above 49 th parallel –GB agreed to cede land below 49 th parallel Rush-Bagot Agreement Treaty with Great Britain Shared Oregon Territory for 10 years Set the northern limits of the Louisiana Territory at the 49th parallel –US agreed to cede land above 49 th parallel –GB agreed to cede land below 49 th parallel

8 Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1818 with Great Britain 49 th Parallel Agreed to joint occupation

9 Florida Becomes Part of US –After War of 1812, Spain had difficulty governing Florida –Seminole Indians, runaway slaves, and white outlaws would conduct raids and then retreat to safety across the Florida border Florida Becomes Part of US –After War of 1812, Spain had difficulty governing Florida –Seminole Indians, runaway slaves, and white outlaws would conduct raids and then retreat to safety across the Florida border President Monroe commissioned General Andrew Jackson to stop the raiders – Jackson led a force into Florida, destroyed Seminole villages, and hanged 2 Seminole chiefs –Jackson captured Pensacola and drove out the Spanish governor President Monroe commissioned General Andrew Jackson to stop the raiders – Jackson led a force into Florida, destroyed Seminole villages, and hanged 2 Seminole chiefs –Jackson captured Pensacola and drove out the Spanish governor

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11 Adams-Onis Treaty (1818) –Spain: Turned over western Florida along with all to the east Gave up claims in the Oregon Territory to the U.S. –US agreed to pay $5 million to Spain to give up any territorial claims to Texas Adams-Onis Treaty (1818) –Spain: Turned over western Florida along with all to the east Gave up claims in the Oregon Territory to the U.S. –US agreed to pay $5 million to Spain to give up any territorial claims to Texas

12 Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 with Spain 49 th Parallel Texas

13 Rush-Bagot 1818

14 New Latin American countries were formed from successful revolutions.

15 Monroe felt that he had to respond to the threat that European countries might try to win back their former Latin American colonies. Thus, Monroe proclaimed the fundamental policy that bears his name, Monroe Doctrine. Monroe felt that he had to respond to the threat that European countries might try to win back their former Latin American colonies. Thus, Monroe proclaimed the fundamental policy that bears his name, Monroe Doctrine. monroe doctrine Monroe told Europe: You stay out of the West, and we’ll stay out of your squabbles. The doctrine also claimed America’s right to intervene anywhere in its own hemisphere, if it felt its security was threatened This was a policy of mutual noninterference Monroe told Europe: You stay out of the West, and we’ll stay out of your squabbles. The doctrine also claimed America’s right to intervene anywhere in its own hemisphere, if it felt its security was threatened This was a policy of mutual noninterference

16 Western Hemisphere or the Americas.

17 No European country tried to intercede in the Americas following the Monroe Doctrine, so it appeared to work. In reality, no one was afraid of the American military; Spain, France and others stayed out of the Western Hemisphere because the powerful British navy made sure they did.

18 Referred to as America’s Self Defense Doctrine. It is a continuation of President Washington’s neutrality and isolationist policies. Past problems with Europe led the US to declare the Americas off-limits to Europe Referred to as America’s Self Defense Doctrine. It is a continuation of President Washington’s neutrality and isolationist policies. Past problems with Europe led the US to declare the Americas off-limits to Europe US protector of new democracies in the Western Hemisphere No European Colonization in the Americas US protector of new democracies in the Western Hemisphere No European Colonization in the Americas US will stay out of European affairs Monroe Doctrine US recognized existing European Colonies

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20 HSpirit of Nationalism in US  patriotism or national oneness  Country is united, confident, and growing  , 9 states joined the original 13. H One political party---Republican party H Respect from Europe H Monroe first president to visit all states. H Boston newspaper declared an “Era of Good Feelings” had began.  But, time period was not free of problems. american system

21 Not so good in the era of good feelings?  There was an economic depression  The country was dividing into three parts  Issue of slavery threatened the nation

22 The Panic of 1819  Largely the fault of the Second Bank of the United States,’ it did not give out as much loans as before (tightened credit in an effort to control inflation)  Many state banks closed  There were large increases in unemployment, bankruptcies, and imprisonment for debt  Depression was most severe in the West

23 Panic of 1819 (Background info) The Panic of 1819 resulted from the end of warfare between France and Great Britain. While these two nations had warred with each other, the United States had prospered. They needed American industrial and agricultural products to sustain themselves during the conflict. Once the war ended, American products were no longer in such great demand.  Both the French and the British downsized their respective militaries.  Many of these former soldiers returned home, cutting into the need for American items overseas. American banks began to fail, unemployment rose, and there was a slump in agriculture and manufacturing. When the national bank called in its loans, many borrowers couldn’t repay them. The consequences included numerous mortgage foreclosures and business failures. Poverty was widespread.

24 Economy Leader ____________ Role of Government NORTHEAST Business and Manufacturing Daniel Webster _______________ Wanted Tariffs Backed internal improvements End to cheap public land Increasingly nationalistic Against Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must abolish it. SOUTH Cotton-growing John C. Calhoun _______________ Opposed tariffs and government spending on American System Increasingly supportive of states’ rights Pro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S. Govt. to try and abolish it. WEST Frontier agriculture Henry Clay ______________ Supported internal improvements and American System. Wanted cheap land Loyal to the U.S. Govt. Against slavery but some supported letting the people decide the slavery issue U.S. was becoming divided into 3 separate sections with each trying to promote their self-interest.

25 Economy Leader __________ Role of Government Economy Leader __________ Role of Government NORTHEAST Business and Manufacturing Daniel Webster ____________Business and Manufacturing Daniel Webster ____________ Wanted TariffsWanted Tariffs Backed internal improvementsBacked internal improvements Wanted end to cheap public landWanted end to cheap public land Increasingly nationalisticIncreasingly nationalistic Against Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must abolish it.Against Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must abolish it.

26 Economy Leader __________ Role of Government SOUTH Cotton growingCotton growing John C. CalhounJohn C. Calhoun____________ Opposed tariffs and government spending on American SystemOpposed tariffs and government spending on American System Increasingly supportive of states’ rightsIncreasingly supportive of states’ rights Pro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S. Govt. to try and abolish it.Pro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S. Govt. to try and abolish it.

27 WEST Frontier agricultureFrontier agriculture Henry ClayHenry Clay_____________ Supported internal improvementsSupported internal improvements Wanted cheap landWanted cheap land Loyal to the U.S. Govt.Loyal to the U.S. Govt. Against slavery but some supported letting the people decide the slavery issueAgainst slavery but some supported letting the people decide the slavery issue Economy Leader __________ Role of Government

28 The new period of expansion also resulted in a national debate over slavery In 1820, the Union consisted of 22 states 11 allowed slavery, 11 prohibited it When Missouri applied for statehood, it threatened the balance of power between the slave & non-slave states

29 After months of heated debate in Congress, Henry Clay won majority support for 3 bills that represented a compromise

30 The Missouri Compromise was created to appease both sides (1) Admit Missouri as a slave state (2) Carve off a piece of Massachusetts, called it Maine, & admitted Maine as a free state (3) Establish the southern border of Missouri as the northernmost point in which slavery would then be allowed in the western territories of the US

31 The compromise was the first in a series of measures forestalling the Civil War. It also split the powerful Democratic-Republican coalition, ending its 20-year control of national politics


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