Presentation on theme: "Phantom Limbs and Lobotomies!!. Learning Targets: Discuss and analyze the occurrence of phantom limb phenomenon Analyze the theories that explain phantom."— Presentation transcript:
Phantom Limbs and Lobotomies!!
Learning Targets: Discuss and analyze the occurrence of phantom limb phenomenon Analyze the theories that explain phantom limb pain.
Think about it… You are driving on a remote road during a horrible blizzard. Your car hits an icy patch and you and your car skid into a deep snow-filled embankment. You are not seriously injured but unfortuneatly your right leg is trapped. Twenty-four hours have gone by and you realize that no one is going to find you. What could you do? Would you…
Cut off your own leg with a pocket knife? JUST A THOUGHT!!
In 1993, Donald Wyman was in the forest driving a bulldozer. A giant oak tree suddenly fell and pinned him to the ground. He was all alone and no one could hear his shouts for help. Donald knew what he had to do. He took out his 3 inch pocket knife and cut off his leg, just below the knee. Phantom Limb – A Case Study
He was bleeding badly, but was able to drag himself to his truck and drive a mile and a half down the road to get help. His limb was too badly damaged to be reattached. (they recovered the part of his leg he sawed off) Donald now has an artificial limb that is fitted to the stump of his leg. More about Donald
His recovery went well, though he does have a problem. “The toughest part since the accident is dealing with phantom pain. It feels like somebody’s holding an electrical shock to your foot that’s not there. It makes you jump around.” We are now going to discuss the strange phenomenon of the phantom limb. His Recovery
Doctors have been puzzled by the phantom limb since they were first reported in Phantom limb – Feeling sensations or movements coming from a limb that has been amputated. These sensations are felt as if the limb were still present. Phantom Limbs
The vast majority of individuals claim to feel sensations or intense pain coming from their removed limb. They often refer to it as “pins and needles” They insist that it is “real” pain, not memories of previous pain. Some individuals claim that their phantom limb was still present and that it was stuck in certain positions. (straight out from their bodies) Some felt that they had to be very careful not to hit their phantom limb when going through doorways! Does this happen frequently?
Theories for Phantom Pain
Sensations come from cut nerves in the stump. Early research thought that when nerves were cut near the spinal cord, phantom limb should have been prevented. The sensations still remained though. This early answer has been rejected. Answers: #1:
Sensations come from the spinal cord. If sensations from phantom limbs do not come from the stump, perhaps they originate in the spinal cord. Well…Even individuals whose spinal cords have been severed above the stump report phantom limb sensations. A severed spinal cord prevents sensations. This theory doesn’t work either. Answer #2:
Sensations come from the brain itself. Researchers have enough data now to indicate that the origin of phantom limb sensations must be the brain itself. They are still puzzled however, how the brain generates sensations from phantom limbs. Answer #3:
Sensations come from a body image stored in the brain. This theory states that we are all programmed with a system of sensations that show us where are body parts are. Based on sensations from body parts, the brain pieces together a complete body image. Having this “body image”, the brain can generate sensations coming from any body part, even if that part is a phantom limb. Answer #4:
Between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Story of Aron Ralston Aron was forced to cut off his own arm when he became trapped while rock climbing. Let’s hear his story!
LOBOTOMY: The removal of some of the pre-frontal lobe (no real scientific precision) WHY? To help alleviate all sorts of mental illness symptoms. (Depression to Schizophrenia) WHO? Dr. Walter Freeman HOW: Using an icepick like instrument and inserting them into the eye-socket and breaching the bone and removing portions of the brain. Lobotomies… You don’t need that part of your brain?!
Frontal Lobes: Regulates emotional behavior and social interactions, executes plans, decision making, and reasoning (What makes us human) Parietal Lobe: Processes sensory information related to touch (pain and temperature) Temporal Lobe: Processes information related to sound and allows us to speak coherently and understand written and verbal material Occipital Lobe: Processes visual information such as seeing colors and recognizing objects and people The Lobes of the Brain
Howard Dully age 12 Some GRUESOME images from Dr. Freeman’s collection!
Unknown patient More photos…
Dr. Freeman pounding in icepicks into patient’s eyes. Dr. Freeman in action!