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Phantom Limbs and Lobotomies!!. Learning Targets: Discuss and analyze the occurrence of phantom limb phenomenon Analyze the theories that explain phantom.

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Presentation on theme: "Phantom Limbs and Lobotomies!!. Learning Targets: Discuss and analyze the occurrence of phantom limb phenomenon Analyze the theories that explain phantom."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phantom Limbs and Lobotomies!!

2 Learning Targets: Discuss and analyze the occurrence of phantom limb phenomenon Analyze the theories that explain phantom limb pain.

3 Phantom Limb

4 Think about it… You are driving on a remote road during a horrible blizzard. Your car hits an icy patch and you and your car skid into a deep snow-filled embankment. You are not seriously injured but unfortuneatly your right leg is trapped. Twenty-four hours have gone by and you realize that no one is going to find you. What could you do? Would you…

5  Cut off your own leg with a pocket knife? JUST A THOUGHT!!

6  In 1993, Donald Wyman was in the forest driving a bulldozer.  A giant oak tree suddenly fell and pinned him to the ground.  He was all alone and no one could hear his shouts for help.  Donald knew what he had to do.  He took out his 3 inch pocket knife and cut off his leg, just below the knee. Phantom Limb – A Case Study

7  He was bleeding badly, but was able to drag himself to his truck and drive a mile and a half down the road to get help.  His limb was too badly damaged to be reattached. (they recovered the part of his leg he sawed off)  Donald now has an artificial limb that is fitted to the stump of his leg. More about Donald

8  His recovery went well, though he does have a problem.  “The toughest part since the accident is dealing with phantom pain. It feels like somebody’s holding an electrical shock to your foot that’s not there. It makes you jump around.”  We are now going to discuss the strange phenomenon of the phantom limb. His Recovery

9  Doctors have been puzzled by the phantom limb since they were first reported in Phantom limb – Feeling sensations or movements coming from a limb that has been amputated.  These sensations are felt as if the limb were still present. Phantom Limbs

10  The vast majority of individuals claim to feel sensations or intense pain coming from their removed limb.  They often refer to it as “pins and needles”  They insist that it is “real” pain, not memories of previous pain.  Some individuals claim that their phantom limb was still present and that it was stuck in certain positions. (straight out from their bodies)  Some felt that they had to be very careful not to hit their phantom limb when going through doorways! Does this happen frequently?

11 Theories for Phantom Pain

12  Sensations come from cut nerves in the stump.  Early research thought that when nerves were cut near the spinal cord, phantom limb should have been prevented.  The sensations still remained though.  This early answer has been rejected. Answers: #1:

13  Sensations come from the spinal cord.  If sensations from phantom limbs do not come from the stump, perhaps they originate in the spinal cord.  Well…Even individuals whose spinal cords have been severed above the stump report phantom limb sensations.  A severed spinal cord prevents sensations.  This theory doesn’t work either. Answer #2:

14  Sensations come from the brain itself.  Researchers have enough data now to indicate that the origin of phantom limb sensations must be the brain itself.  They are still puzzled however, how the brain generates sensations from phantom limbs. Answer #3:

15  Sensations come from a body image stored in the brain.  This theory states that we are all programmed with a system of sensations that show us where are body parts are.  Based on sensations from body parts, the brain pieces together a complete body image.  Having this “body image”, the brain can generate sensations coming from any body part, even if that part is a phantom limb. Answer #4:

16 Between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Story of Aron Ralston Aron was forced to cut off his own arm when he became trapped while rock climbing. Let’s hear his story!

17 Lobotomies

18 LOBOTOMY: The removal of some of the pre-frontal lobe (no real scientific precision)  WHY? To help alleviate all sorts of mental illness symptoms. (Depression to Schizophrenia)  WHO? Dr. Walter Freeman  HOW: Using an icepick like instrument and inserting them into the eye-socket and breaching the bone and removing portions of the brain. Lobotomies… You don’t need that part of your brain?!

19  Frontal Lobes: Regulates emotional behavior and social interactions, executes plans, decision making, and reasoning (What makes us human)  Parietal Lobe: Processes sensory information related to touch (pain and temperature)  Temporal Lobe: Processes information related to sound and allows us to speak coherently and understand written and verbal material  Occipital Lobe: Processes visual information such as seeing colors and recognizing objects and people The Lobes of the Brain

20  Howard Dully age 12 Some GRUESOME images from Dr. Freeman’s collection!

21  Unknown patient More photos…

22  Dr. Freeman pounding in icepicks into patient’s eyes. Dr. Freeman in action!


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