Learning Target I can describe the parts of the nervous system and explain how they work together.
The Control Center What do brushing your teeth, riding a bike, and solving a math problem all have in common? All result from instructions from your body’s control center. Neurons- Specialized cells that make up the nervous system Unlike body cells they CANNOT repair or replace themselves if they are damaged Neurons carry messages to and from different parts of the body Reflex arc
Parts of the Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS)- includes the brain and the spinal cord. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)- includes the nerves that connect the CNS to all parts of the body. It carries messages to and from the CNS
Central Nervous System Brain- the mass of neurons that controls all actions, emotions, thoughts, and memory. Weighs about 3 pounds Blood vessels cover your brain and carry oxygen and food it needs to work Well protected Skull Meninges - membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord Spinal Cord- long bundle of neurons that extend almost the entire length of the body Relays messages from all parts of the body to the brain and from the brain to muscles and glands Diameter of your index finger, protected by backbone
3 Parts of the Brain Cerebrum- largest portion of the brain controls senses, movement of muscles, thinking, and speech Cerebellum- Sits at the back of the head under the cerebrum. controls balance, posture, and coordination (fine motor movements) Brain Stem- controls vital (important) body actions such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and digestion
Cerebrum -controls senses, movement of muscles, thinking, and speech
Cerebellum- controls balance, posture, and coordination (fine motor movements)
Brain Stem- controls vital (important) body actions such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and digestion
Four Lobes of the Brain FRONTAL LOBE Located in front of the central sulcus (grooves). Concerned with reasoning, planning, parts of speech and movement (motor cortex), emotions, and problem-solving. PARIETAL LOBE Located behind the central sulcus (grooves). Concerned with perception of stimuli such as touch, pressure, temperature and pain. TEMPORAL LOBE Located below the lateral sulcus (grooves). Concerned with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli (hearing) and memory (hippocampus). OCCIPITAL LOBE Located at the back of the brain, behind the parietal lobe and temporal lobe. Concerned with many aspects of vision.
Peripheral Nervous System Made up of many nerves that connect the CNS to all parts of the body Peripheral nerves carry messages to and from your muscles or organs Two main parts of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Somatic system- deals with actions you control (voluntary) Examples- stick your arm out or stick your tongue out Autonomic System- deals with actions you do not usually control. (involuntary) Examples- heartbeat, breathing, digestion