# 1. 2 Measurement, Ranking and Rating Scales An Over View Tahir Mahmood Lecturer Department of Statistics University of Sargodha.

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2 Measurement, Ranking and Rating Scales An Over View Tahir Mahmood Lecturer Department of Statistics University of Sargodha

Scale : Measurement Scale  Nominal scale  Ordinal scale  Interval scale  Ratio scale Rating Scales  Dichromous scale (yes, no)  Category scale  Likert scale(1,2,3----------)  Numerical scale  Semantic differential scale  Itemized rating scale  Fixed or constant sum rating scale  Stapel scale  Graphic rating scale  Consensus scale  Other scales (multidimensional scale)  Paired comparison  Forced choice  Comparative scales Ranking scales ClickClick` Click P.S.M Click O.K

4 Definitions Dichotomous scale; The dichotomous scale is used to elicit a yes or no answer, as in the example Below. Note that a nominal scale is used to elicit the response. Example; do you own a car? YesNo Category scale; The category scale uses multiple items to elicit a single response as per the example. This also uses the nominal scale. Example; where in northern California do you reside? North Bay, south Bay, East Bay, Peninsula, Other Likert scale; The Likert scale is designed to examine how strongly subjects agree or disagree with statement on a 5-point scale with the following anchors: Strongly disagreeDisagree Neither Agree or Nor Disagree AgreeStrongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 This is also an interval scale and differences in the response between any two points on the scale remain the same Click

5 Semantic Differential Scale; Several bipolar attributes are identified at extremes of the scale and respondents are asked to indicate their attitude, on what may be called a semantic scale. This is treated as interval scale. Example; Responsive --------------------- Unresponsive Beautiful --------------------- Ugly Numerical scale; The numerical is similar to the semantic scale, with the difference that numbers on a 5-point or 7-points scale are provided. This is also an interval scale. Example; How please are you with your new real estate agent? extremely pleased 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 extremely displeased Itemized rating scale; A 5-point or 7-point scale with anchors, as needed, is provided for each item and the respondent states the appropriates number on the side of each item, as per the examples that follow. The response to the items are then summated. This use an interval scale. Click Example; Very unlikely unlikely Neither likely or Nor unlikely likely very likely 13254

6 Fixed or constant sum scale; the respondent are here asked to distribute a given no. Of points across various items as per the example below. This is more in the nature of Ordinal scale. Example; in choosing a toilet soap, indicate the importance you attach to each of the aspects by allotting points for each to total 100 in all. Stapel scale; this scale simultaneously measures both direction and intensity of the attitude toward the items under study. the characteristic of interest to the study is placed at the center and a numerical scale, say, from +3 to -3, on either side of the item. Since this does not has an absolute zero point, this an interval scale. Click

7 Graphic Rating Scale; a graphical representation helps the respondent to indicate on this scale their answers to a particular question by placing a mark at the appropriate point on the line as in the following example. This is an ordinal scale, though the following example might appear to make it look like an interval scale Example; on a scale of 1 to 10 how would you rate your supervisor? Excellent all right very bad 10 5 1 Consensus scale; are also developed by consensus, where a panel of judges select certain items, which in its view measure the relevant concept. Other scales; there are also some advanced scaling methods such as multidimensional Scaling, where objects, people, or both, are visually scaled, and a conjoint analysis is performed. Click

8 2-Question in a paper is: i.True ii.False 1- An electronic switch is: i. On ii. Off 3- A specific product is: i.Good ii.Defective Click Examples:

9 Click Examples: 1- Intermediate education: i. F.A ii. ICS iii. FSc 2- Tea brand : i. Lipton ii. Supreme iii. Tpal 3- Mobile :i.Nokia ii. Sumsung iii. Q Moble

10 Strongly disagreeDisagree Neither Agree or Nor Disagree AgreeStrongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 Click Examples: 1. Chen one is an attractive store : 2. Chen one have an attractive price : Strongly disagreeStrongly agreeDisagreeAgreeNeither Agree or Nor Disagree 12 345

Click More.. Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio Scales Provide Different Information 3 12

12 Click Service is discourteous ……………… Service is courteous Location is convenient ……………… Location is inconvenient Hours are inconvenient ……………… Hours are convenient Loan interest rates ……………… Loan interest rates are high are low Examples:

13 Click Service is discourteous 1…2…3…4…5…6…7 Service is courteous Location is convenient 1…2…3…4…5…6…7 Location is inconvenient Hours are inconvenient 1…2…3…4…5…6…7 Hours are convenient Loan interest rates 1…2…3…4…5…6…7 Loan interest rates are high are low Examples:

14 In the restaurant example, the participant distributes 100 points among four categories to indicate the relative importance of each attribute: _____ Food Quality _____ Atmosphere _____ Service _____ Price 100 TOTAL Click Example:

1.Balanced, forced-choice, odd-interval scale focusing on an attitude toward a specific attribute (1) How do you like the taste of Classic Coke? ______ ___ ______ Like ItLike itNeither Like Dislike It Strongly Very MuchNor Dislike It Dislike It 2.Balanced, forced-choice, even-interval scale focusing on an overall attitude (2) Overall, how would you rate Ultra Brite Toothpaste? ___ ___ ___ ExtremelyVery Somewhat Somewhat Very Extremely Good Good Good Bad Bad Bad Click

16 Click Nokia : Mobile Reliability Dew : cold drink flavor 3 1 2 1-3 -2 -2-3 2 3 Examples:

17 Click 1- Mostly behave of friends with you : 2- Semester system satisfying you : Examples: 15 10

18 Click The decision chooses a number from one to five to signal their degree of support. These numbers signal roughly the following: 1: Yes. Let's do it. 2: OK. It's good enough. 3: Maybe. I have questions. 4: Wait. Can we change it? 5: No. Let's do something else. Example:

19 Number of Dimensions Measurement scales are either uni dimensional or multidimensional With a one-dimensional scale, only one attribute of the participant or object is measured. One measure of an actor’s star power is his or her ability to “carry” a movie. It is a single dimension. By combining multiple dimensions into a single measure, an agent may place clients along a linear continuum of “star power.” A multidimensional scale recognizes that an object might be better described with several dimensions than on a one-dimensional continuum. The actor’s star power variable might be better expressed by three distinct dimensions—ticket sales for last three movies, speed of attracting financial re-sources, and column-inch/amount-of-TV coverage of the last three films Click More..

20 Click  Description - Paired comparison scales ask a respondent to pick one of two objects from a set based upon a given criterion  Example - Which brand do you prefer? ___ Coca-Cola ___ Pepsi ___ Dr. Pepper___ Pepsi ___ Coca-Cola___ Seven-Up ___ Dr. Pepper___ Seven-Up Example:

21 Click Scaling Defined: The term scaling refers to procedures for attempting to determine quantitative measures of subjective and sometimes abstract concepts. It is defined as a procedure for the assignment of numbers to a property of objects in order to impart some of the characteristics of numbers to the properties in question. Click More..

22 Click Measurement Process of assigning numbers or labels to things in accordance with specific rules to represent quantities or qualities of attributes. Rule: A guide, method, or command that tells a researcher what to do. Scale: A set of symbols or numbers constructed to be assigned by a rule to the individuals (or their behaviors or attitudes) to whom the scale is applied.

23 Head Size InchesCm. 2153 21 –1/254 21 –5/855 22 – 1/856 22 – 1/257 2358 23 – 3/859 23 –3/460 2461 24 –1/262 2563 Hat Size 6 – 5/8XS 6 –3/4 S 6 – 7/8 7 M 7 –1/8 7 –1/4 L 7 – 3/8 7 –1/2 XL 7 – 5/8 7 –3/4 XXL 7 –7/8 Hair Color Black Blond Brown Grey Red White Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Click

Primary Scales of Measurement

25 Click Example:

26 Click What sources did you use when designing your new home? Please check all that apply.  Online planning services  Magazines  Independent contractor/builder  Designer  Architect  Other (specify:_____________) Click More..

27 What newspaper do you read most often for financial news?  East City Gazette  West City Tribune  Regional newspaper  National newspaper  Other (specify:_____________) Example: Click

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