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Chapter 12 MeasurementScales McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 MeasurementScales McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12 MeasurementScales McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2 12-2 Learning Objectives Understand… The nature of attitudes and their relationship to behavior. The critical decisions involved in selecting an appropriate measurement scale. The characteristics and use of rating, ranking, sorting, and other preference scales.

3 12-3 Measurements are Relative “Any measurement must take into account the position of the observer. There is no such thing as measurement absolute, there is only measurement relative.” Jeanette Winterson journalist and author

4 12-4 PulsePoint: Research Revelation 34 The percent of workers who are considered truly loyal.

5 12-5 The Scaling Process

6 12-6 Nature of Attitudes Cognitive I think oatmeal is healthier than corn flakes for breakfast. Affective Behavioral I hate corn flakes. I intend to eat more oatmeal for breakfast.

7 12-7 Improving Predictability Reference groups Multiple measures Multiple measures Factors Strong Specific Basis Direct

8 12-8 Measurement Scales “All survey questions must be actionable if you want results.” Frank Schmidt, senior scientist The Gallup Organization

9 12-9 Selecting a Measurement Scale Research objectivesResponse types Data properties Number of dimensions Forced or unforced choices Balanced or unbalanced Rater errors Number of scale points

10 12-10 Response Types Rating scale Ranking scale Categorization Sorting

11 12-11 Number of Dimensions Unidimensional Multi-dimensional

12 12-12 Balanced or Unbalanced Very bad Bad Neither good nor bad Good Very good Poor Fair Good Very good Excellent How good an actress is Angelina Jolie?

13 12-13 Forced or Unforced Choices Very bad Bad Neither good nor bad Good Very good Very bad Bad Neither good nor bad Good Very good No opinion Don’t know How good an actress is Angelina Jolie?

14 12-14 Number of Scale Points Very bad Bad Neither good nor bad Good Very good Very bad Somewhat bad A little bad Neither good nor bad A little good Somewhat good Very good How good an actress is Angelina Jolie?

15 12-15 Rater Errors Error of central tendency Error of leniency Adjust strength of descriptive adjectives Space intermediate descriptive phrases farther apart Provide smaller differences in meaning between terms near the ends of the scale Use more scale points

16 12-16 Rater Errors Primacy Effect Recency Effect Reverse order of alternatives periodically or randomly

17 12-17 Rater Errors Halo Effect Rate one trait at a time Reveal one trait per page Reverse anchors periodically

18 12-18 Simple Category Scale I plan to purchase a MindWriter laptop in the 12 months.  Yes  No

19 12-19 Multiple-Choice, Single-Response Scale What newspaper do you read most often for financial news?  East City Gazette  West City Tribune  Regional newspaper  National newspaper  Other (specify:_____________)

20 12-20 Multiple-Choice, Multiple-Response Scale What sources did you use when designing your new home? Please check all that apply.  Online planning services  Magazines  Independent contractor/builder  Designer  Architect  Other (specify:_____________)

21 12-21 Likert Scale The Internet is superior to traditional libraries for comprehensive searches.  Strongly disagree  Disagree  Neither agree nor disagree  Agree  Strongly agree

22 12-22 Semantic Differential

23 12-23 Adapting SD Scales Convenience of Reaching the Store from Your Location Nearby___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:Distant Short time required to reach store___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:Long time required to reach store Difficult drive___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:Easy Drive Difficult to find parking place___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:Easy to find parking place Convenient to other stores I shop___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:Inconvenient to other stores I shop Products offered Wide selection of different kinds of products___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Limited selection of different kinds of products Fully stocked___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:Understocked Undependable products___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:Dependable products High quality___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:Low quality Numerous brands___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:Few brands Unknown brands___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:Well-known brands

24 12-24 SD Scale for Analyzing Actor Candidates

25 12-25 Graphic of SD Analysis

26 12-26 Numerical Scale

27 12-27 Multiple Rating List Scales “Please indicate how important or unimportant each service characteristic is:” IMPORTANT UNIMPORTANT Fast, reliable repair Service at my location Maintenance by manufacturer Knowledgeable technicians Notification of upgrades Service contract after warranty

28 12-28 Stapel Scales

29 12-29 Constant-Sum Scales

30 12-30 Graphic Rating Scales

31 12-31 Ranking Scales Paired-comparison scale Forced ranking scale Comparative scale

32 12-32 Paired-Comparison Scale

33 12-33 Forced Ranking Scale

34 12-34 Comparative Scale

35 12-35 Sorting

36 12-36 MindWriter Scaling Likert Scale The problem that prompted service/repair was resolved Strongly DisagreeDisagree Neither Agree Nor DisagreeAgree Strongly Agree Numerical Scale (MindWriter’s Favorite) To what extent are you satisfied that the problem that prompted service/repair was resolved? Very Dissatisfied Very Satisfied Hybrid Expectation Scale Resolution of the problem that prompted service/repair. Met Few Expectations Met Some Expectations Met Most Expectations Met All Expectations Exceeded Expectations 12345

37 12-37 Ideal Scalogram Pattern Item Participant Score 2413 XXXX 4 __XXX 3 XX 2 X 1 0 * X = agree; __ = disagree.

38 12-38 Key Terms Attitude Balanced rating scale Categorization Comparative scale Constant-sum scale Cumulative scale Error of central tendency Error of leniency Forced-choice rating scale Forced ranking scale Graphic rating scale Halo effect Item analysis Likert scale Multidimensional scale

39 12-39 Key Terms Multiple-choice, multiple-response scale Multiple-choice, single-response scale Multiple rating list Numerical scale Paired-comparison scale Q-sort Ranking scale Rating scale Scaling Scalogram analysis Semantic differential Simple category scale

40 12-40 Key Terms Sorting Stapel scale Summated rating scale Unbalanced rating scale Unforced-choice rating scale Unidimensional scale


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