# Scaling. Why do we assign numbers to characteristics of objects? What is scaling. What is a nominal scale and what is it used for in Marketing Nominal.

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Scaling

Why do we assign numbers to characteristics of objects? What is scaling. What is a nominal scale and what is it used for in Marketing Nominal Scale This is where data is simply in terms of names or descriptions. For example colours red, blue, green would be nominal data.

Ordinal Scale This is where data can be recognised as being in some order. For example, a collection of names might be ordered alphabetically. Or a list of entrants in an exam might be ordered by their marks. The order does not mean that items can be added because the gap between the items is unspecified. What is an ordinal scale and what is it used for in Marketing?

What is an interval scale and what is it used for in Marketing? Interval Scale This is where the gaps between whole numbers on the scale are equal. This permits the arithmetic operations of addition and subtraction. An example of this kind of scale is temperature. 20° C is not twice as hot as 10° C because 0° is not an absolute zero. It is simply the amount of heat beyond which water turns from solid to liquid.

What is an interval scale and what is it used for in Marketing? Ratio Scale A ratio scale permits full arithmetic operation. Measuring the time something takes is an example of using a ratio scale. If a train journey takes 2 hr and 35 min, then this is half as long as a journey which takes 5 hr and 10 min. We need to be very careful about the scale which is being used, and it is not uncommon for people to do arithmetic on scales which are simply ordinal - marks for assignments at school for example!

What’s the difference between comparative and non-comparative scales?

Paired Comparison Rank Order Constant Sum Comparative Scales NonComparative Scales Continuous Rating Scales Itemised Rating Scales Stapel Semantic Differential Likert A Classification of Scaling Techniques SCALING TECHNIQUES

Constant Sum Scale Please divide 100 pointes among the following characteristics so the division reflects the relative importance of each characteristic to you in the selection of a bank Hours of service________________ Friendliness_______________ Distance from home________________ Investment vehicles________________ Parking facilities __________________

Continuous scale

The Likert scale

Semantic Differential Scale Here are a number of statements that could be used to describe Sears. For each statement tick ( ) the box that best describes your feelings about Sears. Modern Store Low prices Unfriendly staff Narrow product range Sophisticated customers Old- fashioned store High prices Friendly staff Wide product range Unsophisticated customers

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly Agree Moderately Agree Slightly Disagree Slightly Disagree Moderately Disagree Strongly Agree Disagree Agree Undecided Disagree Agree Very Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree Very Strongly Yes No Completely Agree Mostly Agree Slightly Agree Slightly Disagree Mostly Disagree Completely Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree Tend to Disagree Tend to Agree Agree Agree Strongly AGREEMENT

Very Frequently Frequently Occasionally Rarely Very Rarely Never Always Very Frequently Occasionally Rarely Very Rarely Never Always Usually About Half the Time Seldom Never Almost Always To a Considerable Degree Occasionally Seldom A Great Deal Much Somewhat Little Never Often Sometimes Seldom Never Always Very Often Sometimes Rarely Never FREQUENCY

Very Important Important Moderately Important Of Little Importance Unimportant Very Important Moderately Important Unimportant Very Good Good Barely Acceptable Poor Very Poor Extremely Poor Below Average Average Above Average Excellent Good Fair Poor IMPORTANCE QUALITY

Like Me Unlike Me To a Great Extent Somewhat Very Little Not at All True False Definitely Very Probably Probably Possibly Probably Not Very Probably Not Almost Always True Usually True Often True Occasionally True Sometimes But Infrequently True Usually Not True Almost Never True True of Myself Mostly True of Myself About Halfway True of Myself Slightly True Of Myself Not at All True of Myself LIKELIHOOD

Department Store Name +3 +2 +1 Wide Selection -2 -3 Select a plus number for words that you think describe the store accurately. the more accurately you think the work describes the store, the larger the plus number you should choose. Select a minus number for words you think do not describe the store accurately. The less accurately you think the word describes the store, the large the minus number you should choose, therefore, you can select any number from +3 for words that you think are very accurate all the way to -3 for words that you think are very inaccurate. A Stapel Scale for Measuring a Store’s Image

Scale Decisions Number of Categories generally between 5 and 9 Balance preferably a balanced scale Odd or Even if neutral responses likely, use odd number Forced or Nonforced if no opinion likely, use nonforced scale Verbal Description label and close to response categories Physical Form should be piloted.

Balanced and Unbalanced Scales Balanced Scale Unbalanced Scale JOVAN MUSK FOR MEN IS Extremely good Very good Good Bad Very bad Extremely bad Extremely good Very good Somewhat Good Good Bad Very bad

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