3 What should you ask?The questions asked are a function of previous decisionsThe questions asked are a function of future decisions (such as statistical analysis)
4 Key criteria Questionnaire relevancy Questionnaire accuracy No unnecessary information is collected and only information needed to solve the problem is obtained. Be specific about your data needs; tie each question to an objectiveQuestionnaire accuracyInformation is both reliable and valid
5 Phrasing QuestionsOpen ended response versus fixed alternative questions“?”Decision criteria: type of research; time; method of delivery; budget; concerns regarding researcher bias
6 Avoid Leading questions Overly complex questions Use of jargon Loaded questions (can use a counterbiasing statement)AmbiguityDouble barreled questionsMaking assumptions
7 Order?Order bias results from an alternative answer’s position in a set of answers or from the sequencing of questionsFunneling technique: general to specific helps understand the frame of reference firstAnchoring effect: the first concept measured tends to become a comparison point from which subsequent evaluations are made
8 Decisions Ranking, sorting, rating or choice? How many categories or response positions?Balanced or unbalanced?Forced choice or nonforced choice?Single measure or index?
10 Types of fixed alternative questions… Single dichotomy or dichotomous-alternative questions“Are you currently registered in a course at the University of Lethbridge?Yes____ No____”Respondent chooses one of two alternatives (yes/no; male/female)What scale would this data create?
11 Types of fixed alternative questions… Multi-choice alternativeRespondent chooses from several alternativesMany types…
12 Multi-choice alternative questions… Determinant choiceChoose only one from several possible responses“Which faculty are you currently registered in at the University of Lethbridge?Management ___Education ____Arts/Science____Health sciences____Combined degree____What type of scale would these data create?
13 Frequency determination Asks for an answer about frequency of occurrenceIn a typical week, how often do you purchase chocolate chip cookies?__never__ once__ 2 or more timesWhat type of scale would these data create?
14 Check list Provide multiple answers to a single question Should be mutually exclusive and exhaustive“What brands of chocolate chip cookies have you, to the best of your memory, purchased in the past month (check all that apply?)”__ Dare__ Chips A’hoy__ Presidents Choice Decadent etc. etc.What type of scale would these data create?
15 Attitude rating scales An enduring disposition to consistently respond to various aspect of the world, including persons, events and objectsTypically seen as having three components:CognitiveAffectiveBehavioural
16 The feelings or emotions toward an object AffectiveThe feelings or emotions toward an object
18 BehavioralPredisposition to actionIntentionsBehavioral expectations
19 Attitude Scales: Scaling Defined The term scaling refers to procedures for attempting to determine quantitative measures of subjective and sometimes abstract concepts. It is defined as a procedure for the assignment of numbers to a property of objects in order to impart some of the characteristics of numbers to the properties in question.
20 Unidimensional Scaling Multidimensional Scaling Procedures designed to measure several dimensions of a respondent or objectProcedures designed to measure only one attribute of a respondent or object
21 Attitude measuring process RankingRatingSortingChoice
22 Types of attitude scales Simple attitude scalesMost basic form – respondent responds to a single questionDo not allow for fine distinctions or placement on continuaYou are at a company party and are feeling nervous, but you are obligated to be there. Do you:__ find someone you know to buddy up with__ take it as an opportunity to meet new peopleWhat type of scale would these data create?
23 Category scales More sensitive; provides more information Overall, how satisfied are you with the high speed performance of your Mercedes:__ very satisfied__ somewhat satisfied__ neither satisfied nor dissatisfied__ somewhat dissatisfied__ very dissatisfiedIf you could choose, how long would each term be?___26 weeks __ 13 weeks __ 6 weeks ___4 weeksWhat type of scale would these data create?
24 Summated rating scales – the Likert scale Respondents indicate their attitudes by checking how strongly they agree or disagree with statementsChocolate chip cookies are my preferred variety of cookieStrongly disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)What type of scale would these data create?
25 Semantic Differential Rating scale An attitude measure consisting of a series of seven-point bipolar rating scales allowing response to a “concept”Think of your favorite type of cookie. Rate it on each of the following continua:Hard SoftLots of chips Fewer chipsCrispy chewyWhat type of scale would these data create?
26 Numerical Rating scale Similar to a semantic differential except that it uses numbers as response options to identify response positions instead of verbal descriptionsThink of your favorite type of cookie. Rate it on each of the following continua:Hard SoftThis scale is called an 8 point numerical scale, why?What type of scale would these data create?
27 Constant Sum ScalesAttributes based on their importance to the person. Respondents are asked to divide a constant sum to indicate the relative importance of attributesExample: Suppose the photocopy budget per professor was $100 per month. How much should be allocated to the following. Divide the $100 according to your preference:____ photocopying for student needs;____ photocopying for research needs;____ photocopying for committee needs.====$100 TOTAL
28 Stapel ScalesAn attitude measure that places a single adjective in the center of an even-number range of numerical valuesExample:Research Methodology+3+2+1Exciting-1-2-3
29 Graphic Rating ScalesAn attitude measure consisting of a graphic continuum that allows respondents to rate an object by choosing any point on the continuum
30 Rank-Order ScalesScales in which the respondent compares one item with another or a group of items against each other and ranks them.Example: handout
31 Most important skills Adaptability to change Problem identification Listening skillsWritten communicationLeadershipInformal Oral communicationAnalytical thinking/problem solvingTime managementCoping with stress/job pressuresInterpersonal relationsFormal oral presentations
32 Most important skills Business grads Managers 8 9 Adaptability to changeProblem identificationListening skillsWritten communicationLeadershipInformal Oral communicationAnalytical thinking/problem solvingTime managementCoping with stress/job pressuresInterpersonal relationsFormal oral presentations8 96 61 12 44 23 35 57 1011 79 810 11
33 Paired Comparison Scales Respondent is presented with two objects and is asked to pick the preferred.Example: Which type of cookie do you prefer__ chocolate chip__ oatmeal__ I do not have a preference between these two
34 SortingRespondent indicates their attitudes or beliefs by arranging items.Example: Please sort the following cards with pictures of cookies into the following categoriesLikeDislikeNeither like nor dislike