# This ad from Greenfield Online suggests that well-executed research can save a company from making a costly mistake on new product introductions.

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This ad from Greenfield Online suggests that well-executed research can save a company from making a costly mistake on new product introductions.

Measurement and Scaling Concepts & Attitude Measurement

Introduction What is to be measured? And How to be measured?

What is to be measured? 1. Quite tall for his age
2. Moderately tall for his age 3. About average for his age 4. Moderately short for his age 5. Quite short for his age Suppose, height of a boy is to be measured If he is moderately tall for his age, his score is 2

What is to be measured? We may compare height with other few children
We may use conventional measuring unit (cm/ inch) We may categorize nice height, not so nice height Suppose, height of a boy is to be measured In each of the above case, we will get different scores

What is to be measured? Many measurement scales used in business research are not directly comparable. A precise definition of the concept may require a description of how it will be measured There is frequently more than one way of measuring a concept. Careful conceptual definition Operational definition A system of consistent rules for assigning numbers

What is to be measured? Operational Definitions Rules of Measurement
An operational definition gives meaning to a concept by specifying the activities or operations necessary to measure it. An operational definition tells the investigator “do such-and-such in so-and-so manner.” Rules of Measurement An example of a measurement rule might be: If the individual is an extremely brand loyal l, assign 1, if the individual is a total brand switcher with no brand loyalty, assign 7 and such. Operational definitions help the researcher specify the rules for assigning numbers.

Types of Scale Nominal scale Ordinal scale Interval scale Ratio scale
A scale may be defined as any series of items that are progressively arranged according to value or magnitude into which an item can be placed according to its quantification. In other words, a scale is a continuous spectrum or series of categories. The purpose of scaling is to represent, usually quantitatively, an item’s, a person’s, or an event’s place in the spectrum. Nominal scale Ordinal scale Interval scale Ratio scale

Sex, Cast, Marital Status
Types of Scale The numbers or letters assigned to objects serve as labels for identification or classification. Nominal scale Ordinal scale Interval scale Ratio scale Sex, Cast, Marital Status

Types of Scale Professional Rank Lt, Capt, Maj, Lt Col
Nominal scale Ordinal scale Interval scale Ratio scale This scale arranges objects or alternatives according to their magnitude. A typical ordinal scale may be, “excellent,” “good,” “fair,” or “poor.” We know that “excellent” is better than “good,” but we don’t know by how much. Professional Rank Lt, Capt, Maj, Lt Col Excellent, Good, Fair

Types of Scale 30, 60 degree Nominal scale Ordinal scale
Interval scale Ratio scale Interval scales not only indicate order, they measure order (or distance) in units of equal intervals. The location of the zero point is arbitrary. The classic example of an interval scale is the Fahrenheit temperature scale. For most behavioral business research, interval scales are typically the best measurements 30, 60 degree

Types of Scale Nominal scale Ordinal scale Interval scale Ratio scale
Ratio scales have absolute rather than relative scales. Both money and weight are ratio scales because they possess an absolute zero and interval properties. The absolute zero represents a point on the scale where there is an absence of the given attribute.

Descriptive Statistics for Types of Scales
Numerical Operation Descriptive Statistics Nominal Counting Frequency in each category, percentage in each category, mode Ordinal Rank Ordering Median, range, percentile ranking Interval Arithmetic operations on intervals between numbers Mean, Standard deviation, variance Ratio Arithmetic operations on actual quantities Geometric mean, coefficient of variation N.B: For all higher type scale, all lower statistics is possible

Index Measure Attribute Index/ Composite Measure
An attribute is a single characteristic or fundamental feature pertaining to an object, person, situation, or issue. Attribute Index/ Composite Measure Multi-itemed instruments for measuring a single concept with several attributes are called index measures, or composite measures. For example, index of social class may be based on three weighted averages: residence, occupation, and residence. Asking different questions in order to measure the same concept provides a more accurate cumulative measure than does a single-item measure.

Criteria for Good Measurement
Reliability The degree to which measures are free from error and therefore yield consistent result. Validity The ability of a scale or measuring instrument to measure what it is intended to measure Sensitivity Sensitivity refers to the ability of a instrument to accurately measure variability in stimuli or responses.

Techniques for Measuring Attitude
Ranking tasks require that the respondent rank order a small number of objects in overall preference on the basis of some characteristic or stimulus Ranking Rating asks the respondent to estimate the magnitude of a characteristic, or quality, that an object possesses. The respondent indicates the position on a scale(s) where he or she would rate an object Rating Sorting might present the respondent with several product concepts typed on cards and require that the respondent arrange the cards into a number of piles or otherwise classify the product concepts Sorting Choice between two or more alternatives is another type of attitude measurement—it is assumed that the chosen object is preferred over the other(s) Choice

Techniques for Measuring Attitude
Ranking: Rank order preference Estimates magnitude of a characteristic Rating: Sorting: Arrange or classify concepts Selection of preferred alternative Choice:

Rating Scales There are variety of rating scales. Effectiveness of such scales depend on situations. Few scales are: Category Scale Likert Scale Semantic Differential & Numeric Constant Sum Stapel Scale Graphic Scale Graphic with Picture Response

Subject Must Advantage Disadvantage Category Scale Indicate response category Flexible, easy to respond Items may be ambiguous with few categories Likert Scale Evaluate statement on a scale Easiest to construct Hard to judge what single score means Semantic Differential & Numeric Choose points between bipolar adjectives Easy to construct, norms exist for comparison Bipolar adjectives must be found, data may be ordinal, not interval Constant Sum Divide constant sum Approx interval measure Difficult for respondent with low education level Stapel Scale Choose point on a scale with adjective on center Easier to construct than semantic End points are numerical, not verbal, Labels Graphic Scale Choose a point on continuum Visual impact No standard answers Graphic with Picture Response Choose a visual picture Hard to attach verbal explanation to response Exploratory research may be a single research investigation or it may be a series of informal studies; both methods provide background information. Researchers must be creative in the choice of information sources. They should explore all appropriate inexpensive sources before embarking on expensive research of their own. However, they should still be systematic and careful at all times

Selecting a Measuring Scale
Is a ranking, sorting, rating or choice technique is best? Should a monadic or comparative scale be used? What type of category labels, if any, should be used? How many scale positions are needed? Should a balanced or unbalanced scale be chosen? Should respondent be given forces choice or unforced choice scale? Should a single measure or an index measure be used?

Most scales has similarity
Conclusion Most scales has similarity You need to use your judgment and be creative Exploratory research may be a single research investigation or it may be a series of informal studies; both methods provide background information. Researchers must be creative in the choice of information sources. They should explore all appropriate inexpensive sources before embarking on expensive research of their own. However, they should still be systematic and careful at all times

? Any Question? Exploratory research may be a single research investigation or it may be a series of informal studies; both methods provide background information. Researchers must be creative in the choice of information sources. They should explore all appropriate inexpensive sources before embarking on expensive research of their own. However, they should still be systematic and careful at all times

Exhibit 3-1 models the sequence of stages in the research process. It also organizes this chapter and the introduces the remaining chapters in the book. Chapter 5 focuses on Stage 2: Proposing Research. Chapters 6-15 focus on Stage 3: Research Design. Chapter 16 focuses on Stage 4: Data Collection. Chapters focus on Stage 5: Data Analysis. Chapter 21 focuses on Stage 6: Reporting.

Remember about Assignment for Next Week
Exhibit 3-1 models the sequence of stages in the research process. It also organizes this chapter and the introduces the remaining chapters in the book. Chapter 5 focuses on Stage 2: Proposing Research. Chapters 6-15 focus on Stage 3: Research Design. Chapter 16 focuses on Stage 4: Data Collection. Chapters focus on Stage 5: Data Analysis. Chapter 21 focuses on Stage 6: Reporting.

You may just have a look for now
Exhibit 3-1 models the sequence of stages in the research process. It also organizes this chapter and the introduces the remaining chapters in the book. Chapter 5 focuses on Stage 2: Proposing Research. Chapters 6-15 focus on Stage 3: Research Design. Chapter 16 focuses on Stage 4: Data Collection. Chapters focus on Stage 5: Data Analysis. Chapter 21 focuses on Stage 6: Reporting.

Physiological Measure of Attitude
Simple Attitude Scale: In its most basic form, attitude scaling requires that an individual agree with a statement or respond to a single question. This type of self-rating scale merely classifies respondents into one of two categories; THE PRESIDENT SHOULD RUN FOR RE-ELECTION _______ AGREE ______ DISAGREE

Physiological Measure of Attitude
A category scale is a more sensitive measure than a scale having only two response categories - it provides more information. Questions working is an extremely important factor in the usefulness of these scales. How important were the following in your decision to visit Bandarbaan (check one for each item) VERY SOMEWHAT NOT TOO IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT CLIMATE ___________ ___________ ___________ COST OF TRAVEL ___________ ___________ ___________ FAMILY ORIENTED ___________ ___________ ___________ EDUCATIONAL/ HISTORICAL ASPECTS _________ ___________ ___________ FAMILIARITY WITH AREA ___________ ___________ ___________

Physiological Measure of Attitude
Likert Scale An extremely popular means for measuring attitudes. Respondents indicate their own attitudes by checking how strongly they agree or disagree with statements. Response alternatives: “strongly agree”, “agree”, “uncertain”, “disagree”, and “strongly disagree”. It is more fun to play a tough, competitive tennis match tan to play an easy one. ___Strongly Agree ___Agree ___Not Sure ___Disagree ___Strongly Disagree

Physiological Measure of Attitude
Semantic Differential A series of seven-point bipolar rating scales. Bipolar adjectives, such as “good” and “bad”, anchor both ends (or poles) of the scale. A weight is assigned to each position on the rating scale. Traditionally, scores are 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, or +3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3. Exciting ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Calm Interesting ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Dull Simple ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Complex Passive ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Active

Physiological Measure of Attitude
Numerical Scale Numerical scales have numbers as response options, rather than “semantic space’ or verbal descriptions, to identify categories (response positions). Exciting 7 : : : : : : : Calm Interesting 7 : : : : : : : Dull Simple 7 : : : : : : : Complex Passive 7 : : : : : : : Active

Physiological Measure of Attitude
Constant - Sum Scale Respondents are asked to divide a constant sum to indicate the relative importance of selected attributes. e.g., Divide 100 points among the following attributes according to its importance in case of a delivery service Accurate Invoicing ____________________ Delivery as Promised __________________ Lower Price __________________________

Physiological Measure of Attitude
Modern versions of the Stapel scale place a single adjective as a substitute for the semantic differential when it is difficult to create pairs of bipolar adjectives. The advantage and disadvantages of a Stapel scale, as well as the results, are very similar to those for a semantic differential. However, the Stapel scale tends to be easier to conduct and administer. Supervisor’s Name +3 +2 +1 Supportive -1 -2 -3

Physiological Measure of Attitude
A graphic rating scale presents respondents with a graphic continuum. Very Very Good Poor

Physiological Measure of Attitude
The behavioral differential instrument has been developed for measuring the behavioral intentions of subjects towards any object or category of objects. A description of the object to be judged is placed on the top of a sheet, and the subjects indicate their behavioral intentions toward this object on a series of scales. For example: A 25-year old woman sales representative Would ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Would Not Ask this person for advice.

Physiological Measure of Attitude
In paired comparisons the respondents are presented with two objects at a time and asked to pick the one they prefer. Ranking objects with respect to one attribute is not difficult if only a few products are compared, but as the number of items increases, the number of comparisons increases geometrically (n*(n -1)/2). If the number of comparisons is too great, respondents may fatigue and no longer carefully discriminate among them.

See You Next Week Exploratory research may be a single research investigation or it may be a series of informal studies; both methods provide background information. Researchers must be creative in the choice of information sources. They should explore all appropriate inexpensive sources before embarking on expensive research of their own. However, they should still be systematic and careful at all times

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