2Organic ChemistryThe study of carbon-containing compounds and their propertiesCarbon can bond strongly to itself and form long chains or rings of carbon atoms
3Carbon BondingCarbon can form 4 bonds (because it has 4 valence electrons… remember those?)These bonds can be made with 4 carbon atoms or atoms of different elementsCarbon can also bond to fewer than 4 other atoms if it forms a double or triple bondDouble bonds share 2 pairs of electronsTriple bonds share 3 pairs of electrons
5Alkanes Hydrocarbons are compounds made solely of hydrogen and carbon Hydrocarbons with all single carbon-carbon bonds are called saturated, because each carbon is bound to 4 atoms – the maximum numberHydrocarbons with multiple carbon-carbon bonds (i.e., double and triple bonds) are unsaturated
6CnH2n+2 Alkanes Saturated hydrocarbons are called alkanes Alkanes in which the carbon atoms form long chains are called normal, straight-chain, or unbranched hydrocarbonsThey are given by the general formulaCH3 – (CH2)m – CH3OrCnH2n+2
7Alkanes Name Condensed Formula Extended Formula Methane CH4 Ethane CH3CH3PropaneC3H8CH3CH2CH3n-butaneC4H10CH3CH2CH2CH3n-pentaneC5H12CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3n-hexaneC6H14CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3n-heptaneC7H16CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3n-octaneC8H18CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3n-nonaneC9H20CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3n-decaneC10H22CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
8AlkanesGive the extended and condensed molecular formulas for an alkane with fifteen carbon atoms.
9Structural Formulas and Isomerism Structural isomerism occurs when two molecules have the same atoms, but different bonds (different arrangements)This occurs in butane and all succeeding alkanes
10Naming Alkanes The Rules Find the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms – this “parent chain” determines the base name of the alkaneNumber the carbons in the parent chain, starting at the end closest to any branching.Using the appropriate name for each alkyl group (next slide), specify its position on the parent chain with a number.When a given type of alkyl group occurs more than once, attach the appropriate prefix (di- for two, tri- for three, etc) to the alkyl nameThe alkyl groups are listed in alphabetical order, disregarding any prefix
12Alkenes and AlkynesHydrocarbons that contain carbon-carbon double bonds are called alkenesHydrocarbons that contain carbon-carbon triple bonds are called alkynes
13Alkenes and Alkynes Naming Rules Select the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms that contains the double or triple bondFor an alkene, the root name of the carbon chain is the same as for the alkane, but ends in –ene (alkynes end in –yne)Number the parent chain, starting at the end closest to the double/triple bond. The location of the multiple bond is given by the lowest-numbered carbon atom involved in the bond.Substituents on the parent chain are treated the same way as in naming alkanes.
14Aromatic Hydrocarbons Aromatic hydrocarbons are compounds that have pleasant odors and contain a benzene ring (ring of 6 carbon atoms)Examples: wintergreen, cinnamon, vanillin
15Naming Aromatic Compounds Monosubstituted Benzenes (p. 781)Use the substituent name as a prefix of benzeneWhen the benzene ring is used as a substituent, it is called a phenyl groupDisubstituted Benzenes (p. 781)When there is more than one substituent on the benzene ring, numbers are used to indicate the substituent position
16Naming Aromatic Compounds Some other helpful terms/prefixes:Ortho- (o-) means two adjacent substituentsPara- (p-) means two substituents directly across the ring from each otherMeta- (m-) means two substituents with one carbon between them
17Functional Groups (slide 17) see also Table 23.1 on p. 799
18Alcohols see also p. 805Alcohols are characterized by the presence of the –OH groupNaming RulesSelect the longest chain of carbon atoms containing the –OH groupNumber the chain so that the carbon with the –OH group gets the lowest possible numberObtain the root name from the name of the parent hydrocarbon chain by replacing the final –e with –olName any other substituents as usual
19Aldehydes and Ketones see also p. 813 Naming Rules:Refer back to slide 17 to see the structure of aldehydes and ketones…Name an aldehyde with the parent alkane name but replace the –e with –alName a ketone with the parent alkane name but replace the –e with -one
20Carboxylic Acids and Esters see also p. 815 Again, refer to slide 17 to see the structures of carboxylic acids and estersName carboxylic acids using the parent alkane name and replacing –e with –oic acid.Examples: methanoic acid, ethanoic acid, propanoic acid, etc.
21Carboxylic Acids and Esters Esters are formed from the reaction of a carboxylic acid and an alcoholThey often have sweet, fruity odorsThe name consists of the alkyl name from the alcohol followed by the acid name, where the –ic is replaced by –ateExample: the ester made from acetic acid and isopropyl alcohol is called isopropyl acetate
22PolymersPolymers are large, usually chainlike molecules that are built from small molecules called monomers.Polymers are the basis for synthetic fibers, rubbers and plasticsExamples:PolyethyleneTeflonPolyester
23Polymers Copolymers – made of different types of monomers Homeopolymers – made up of a single type of monomerAddition polymerization – monomers simply “add together”Condensation polymerization – a small molecule (perhaps water) is formed for each extension of the polymer chain – Ex: NYLON
24For your knowledge only… The rest of the slides will not be testedFor your knowledge only…
25Reactions of Alkanes Combustion Reactions Same as we have seen before General formulaCnH2n+2 + O2 CO2 + H2O
26Reactions of Alkanes Substitution reactions One or more hydrogen atoms of the alkane is/are replaced (substituted) by different atomsExample:CH4 + Cl2 CH3Cl + HCl
27Reactions of Alkanes Dehydrogenation reactions Hydrogen atoms are removed and the product is an unsaturated hydrocarbonExample:CH3CH3 CH2CH2 + H2
28Alkenes and Alkynes Reactions of Alkenes Addition reactions – new atoms form single bonds to the carbons formerly involved in the double or triple bondsHydrogenation reactions – addition reactions with hydrogen atoms being added to the carbons formerly involved in the double or triple bondsHalogenation – addition reactions with halogen atoms being added to the carbons formerly involved in the double or triple bonds.