2The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals to be achieved by 2015 that respond to the world's main development challenges. The MDGs are drawn from the actions and targets contained in the Millennium Declaration that was adopted by 189 nations-and signed by 147 heads of state and governments during the UN Millennium Summit in September 2000.If you could make a list of things to focus on to improve human development in developing countries, what would you choose? Why?
58 MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS In September 2000, 189 countries recognised the importance of all countries developing partnerships that aimed to reduce extreme poverty by 2015 through the achievement of set targets.8 MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALSAIMTo reduce poverty, hunger and disease, address lack of adequate shelter and access to health care, while promoting gender equality, health and education and environmental sustainability
6List of the 8 Millennium Goals IntroductionA 7-minute video outlining the United Nations' Millennium Development Goal (MDG) campaign and steps that anyone can use to achieve these important goals.Good statistics about each issueDevelopment GoalsList of the 8 Millennium Goals
7In order to ensure the progress continues to be made towards the achievement of the goals by 2015, it is important to track the targets for each goal.This enables the international community, including government and non-government organisations, to determine the areas that require greater focus and develop appropriate, affordable and equitable strategies
9Cycle of PovertyThe cycle of poverty has been described as a phenomenon where poor families become trapped in poverty for generations. Because they have no or limited access to critical resources, such as education and financial services, subsequent generations are also impoverished.
10Outline one trend shown in the graph. Which region has had the greatest reduction in poverty rates?Which region has the highest rate in 2005?Using data from the graph evaluate the progress towards this goal.
11One of the targets for reducing poverty is to achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all including women and young peopleDiscuss how this target would help to achieve the MDG – end poverty and hunger.Test your knowledge: Q’s 1-17
12Every human being should have the opportunity to make a better life for themselves. Unfortunately, too many children in the world today grow up without this chance, because they are denied their basic right to even attend primary school. A sustainable end to world poverty as we know it, as well as the path to peace and security, require that citizens in every country are empowered to make positive choices and provide for themselves and their families.
14Achieving the goal:With the help of donor funds and debt relief, in 2002 Tanzania was able to make primary education free for all Tanzanian children. Almost overnight, an estimated 1.6 million children enrolled in school and by 2003, 3.1 million additional children were attending primary education.
15Why should they care?75 million children around the world aren’t in school (55% are girls)70% are in Sub-Saharan Africa (e.g. 35 million/19 million were girls) & South Asia (e.g million/11 million were girls)Poor kids can’t go to school because they need to work to help their families survive
16Elma Kassa 13yrs Ethiopia ‘I go to collect waster 4 X a day in a 20L clay jar. It’s hard work! ... I’ve never been to school as I have to help my mother with her washing work so we can earn enough money … If I could alter my tyre, I would really like to go to school & have more clothes’:Of those who go to school, many drop out before they master basic reading, writing & maths skillsIn Sub-Saharan Africa only 67% of students reach the last grade of primary schoolEnrolment in tertiary education in developing countries is <20% as opposed to 67% in developed countries (average cost each yr per student $5,500 Europe vs. $167 Africa)Child malnutrition is a global epidemic that affects 1 in 3 children under 5 & undermines their ability to learn
17Discuss how conflict contributes to low school enrolments and high drop out rates, particularly for girls.Read Pages Test your Knowledge1-4
18Goal 3Purpose Promote gender equality and empower women, is to raise the socioeconomic status of women in developing countries through ensuring that females have equal access to educationReasons for Goal 3 As outlined females are generally less likely than males to have access to education. Education has the ability to empower women; it enables access to higher paid employment & work in jobs that are less likely to impact negatively on their health.
19Target Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, & in all levels of education by no later than 2015
20For girls in some regions, education remains elusive Poverty is a major barrier to education, especially among older girlsIn every developing region except the CIS, men outnumber women in paid employmentWomen are largely relegated to more vulnerable forms of employmentWomen are over-represented in informal employment, with its lack of benefits and securityTop-level jobs still go to men — to an overwhelming degreeWomen are slowly rising to political power, but mainly when boosted by quotas and other special measures
21Did You Know?Of the 1.3 billion people living in poverty around the world, 70% are women.Women do about 66% of the world's work in return for less than 5% of its incomeIn the least developed countries nearly twice as many women over age 15 are illiterate compared to menTwo-thirds of children denied primary education are girls, and 75% of the world’s 876 million illiterate adults are womenWomen work two-thirds of the world's working hours, produce half of the world's food, and yet earn only 10% of the world's income and own less than 1% of the world's property. (Source :World Development Indicators, 1997, Womankind Worldwide)
22Goal 4Child deaths are falling, but not quickly enough to reach the targetRevitalizing efforts against pneumonia and diarrhoea, while bolstering nutrition, could save millions of childrenRecent success in controlling measles may be short-lived if funding gaps are not bridged