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Early Civilizations Chapters 1-3.

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1 Early Civilizations Chapters 1-3

2 The Old Stone Age(Paleolithic Age)
The earliest period in human history Mary and Louis Leakey - Africa 1959 Donald Johanson – “Lucy” found in Africa 1974 Named after a Beatles song(The Beatles are terrible) Old Stone age – 2.5 million B.C. to 10,000 B.C. Nomads – Still around today? 1) Also known as the Paleolithic age 2) Mary and Louis Leakey were anthropologists who discovered the first traces of human life in East Africa. In 1959, they discovered pieces of bone that belonged to early hominids. After many tests, it was determined that these beings dated back to around million years ago. Beings that would soon become homo sapiens. 3)He discovered part of an early hominid’s skeleton in Ethiopia. Discoveries such as this were what led historians to believe that the Old Stone age began in East Africa 2.5 million years ago.

3 Nomads These people: made simple tools and weapons out of stone, bone, or wood developed a spoken language invented clothing(animal skins) used caves and rocky overhangs for shelter learned to build fires for warmth and cooking 1) Nomads are people that move from place to place never really calling any place “home.” HUNTERS AND GATHERERS. They always have to struggle to adapt to their environment. They lived using whatever resources they could find, no matter the conditions. Drifters. Modern day: Rebels. Bikers.

4 Early Spiritual and Religious Beliefs
30,000 years ago – The first evidence of spiritual belief Animism - the belief that the world is full of spirits and forces that might reside in animals, objects, or dreams Stone statues Early people began burying their dead with care, suggesting a belief in life after death To the people in the Old Stone Age, the world was filled with spirits and forces, that may reside and animals and control the world. You still see many of these types of beliefs today, like in Shamans. This belief is called Animism. Stone statues were different from Animism. Goddesses. The belief in the after-life was something that was found to be started near the end of the Old Stone Age.

5 New Stone Age(Neolithic)
11,000 B.C. – Nomads began producing their own food through agriculture Because of farming, permanent villages were created and inhabited by humans Domestication of animals Growth in population New Technology: calendars, animal plows, tools, cloth weaving By learning how to farm, they were no longer nomads. They could stay in one place. Rather than wait for animals to migrate each year so the nomads could hunt them, they learned to domesticate them, or tame them into staying. Herding the animals made it easier to get food. The Neolithic period new wave of agriculture brought about an increased population. More population led to more interaction with other communities nearby. You began to see community characteristics such as economic and political life. Head of the household. Women does the farming, men do the handy work. A council of elders were formed. Actual communties. However, a bigger population meant less food to go around. Food became scarce and warfare increased. Some men began to take over as warriors and you began to see an actual warrior class. New technology – Time had to be measured in order to harvest food. Calendars were created. Animals were used as plows for the fields. Sharper tools were made and clothes were weaved using animal hairs.The Neolithic Age gave rise to one very important thing: CIVILIZATIONS.

6 How did cities emerge? Where?
Farmers began cultivating lands along river valleys and producing surplus or extra, food Surpluses helped populations expand As populations grew, some villages swelled into cities Middle East, Egypt, India, and China 1) Cities emerged in the Tigris and Eurphrates rivers in the Middle East. The Nile river in Egypt. The Indus River valley in India, and the Yellow River(Huang Hue) in China. Because of these rivers, farming was expanding. It allowed soil renewal, drinking water, animals flocked to them for food, and a means for transportation.

7 Problems, Solutions, and Expansion
Rivers caused flooding. Farmers constructed dams, canals, and irrigation ditches to help Walls were being built around cities To stop the flooding, farmers had to build dams, canals, and irrigation ditches. More technology was arriving. Why length, why width?

8 8 Features of Civilization
Cities = civilization Well-organized central governments Complex religions – Polytheistic Job specialization Social classes – Priests, Warriors, Merchants, Farmers, Weavers, Slaves Arts and architecture Public works Writing - scribes cities are a vital part of any civilization. Well-organized central governments - Government, politics, laws, defense(army), departments. Tax collectors. Complex religions - polytheistic(believe in many Gods). Sun Gods, River Gods, etc. Job Specializations – crafts, trades, special skills were needed. Job classifications. Individuals became skilled in different areas. Social classes- Social organization became more complex. People were being ranked, depending on their jobs. Classes.Slaves were the lowest class. Women and children. Arts and architecture – Temples and Palaces Public works – Roads, Bridges, walls. Similar to how we have construction companies and city employees. Writing – Possibly begun in temples. Earliest writing was called PICTOGRAMS. Pictures that resembled objects. Symbols. Scribes were people who specialized in writing, learned in temples, and recorded INFORMATION. Women were generally not allowed to become scribes because men did not want them to have power.

9 How Civilizations Spread…
Civilizations spread when ancient rulers gained more power and conquered territories beyond the boundaries of their cities Powerful rulers created city-states and empires A city-state included a city and its surrounding lands and villages. An empire is a group of states or territories controlled by one ruler Civilizations change when the physical environment changes. Interactions among people also cause cultures to change. For example, cultural diffusion. Cultural diffusion is the spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another. Cultural diffusion occurred through migration, trade, and warfare. Nomads would sometimes be absorbed. City-States are more political in nature. The ruler of a civilization and his political unit(priests, noblemen) usually controlled the land outside their city. When they would acquire power, they would always look for more. This would lead to battles for power. When cities were conquered, empires were created. Empires brought people together. Cultures, clothes, habits became shared.Common bonds.

10 Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile
Nile River Egyptians depended on floods to soak the land and deposit silt Egyptians built dikes, reservoirs, and irrigation ditches Rulers used the Nile to unite Upper and Lower Egypt Without the life-giving waters of the Nile, Egypt would have simply been a barren desert that was too dry for farming. The river gave the ancient Egyptians drinking water, as well as water for irrigation. It also deposited rich soil along its banks during flooding. 1) Upper and Lower Egypt: in 3100 B.C. King Menes(the ruler of Upper Egypt) united the two kingdoms and built his capital named Memphis. He established the first dynasty of ancient Egypt.

11 Old Kingdom and the Middle Kingdom
2686 B.C. – 2150 B.C. Pharaohs organized a strong central state, were absolute rulers, and were considered Gods Egyptians built pyramids at Giza Middle Kingdom 2030 B.C. – 1640 B.C.(King Mentuhotep II) Traders had contacts with Middle East and Crete Corruption and rebellions were common New Kingdom Powerful pharaohs created a large empire that reached the Euphrates River Ramses and Hatshepsut Egypt and Nubia From around 1554 B.C. the king was given the title of pharaoh. They were the ultimate beings in terms of power. Every aspect of Egyptian life was under the pharaoh’s control. Egyptians believed that the pharaoh was responsible for the annual flooding of the Nile that helped the crops grow. Pyramids: A place where they could rest eternally. No one knows exactly how the pyramids were built but many historians believe that stone blocks, some weighing as heavy as cars, were dragged to the site on wooden sleds pulled by workers. Layer by layer the pyramid grew. Herodotus, the Greek historian in the 5th century BC, estimated that construction may have required 100,000 workers for 20 years. A pyramid was a tomb for Egypt’s pharaohs. Middle Kingdom: King Mentuhotep II reunited Egypt and restored order. Crete was the center of the Minoan civilization (ca. 2600–1400 BCE), the oldest civilization in Europe. Hyksos: An Asiatic people who overran Asia. They introduced new types of warfare including the composite bow. The first pharaoh from 1550 B.C. – 1525 B.C., Ahmose I, finally expelled the Hyksos from their last holdout in Lower Egyptin by the 16th year of his reign.

12 Early Civilizations in India and China(2500 B.C. – 256 B.C.)
Chapter 3

13 Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley is located on the subcontinent of India The subcontinent is divided into three major zones: northern plain, Deccan, and coastal plains The rivers of India, particularly the Ganges, are considered sacred In 1922, archeologists discovered the remains of bricks, statues, and other artifacts from a civilization unseen and unheard of before. They realized that they had uncovered a “lost” civilization. Cities of the INDUS VALLEY. Subcontinent – The subcontinent of India is a region that contains THREE of the world’s most populated countries: INDIA, BANGLEDESH, and PAKISTAN. Sri Lanka is also a part of it. Tiny little island that sticks out at the bottom. The Mountains, HIMALAYAS, have also helped India develop a distinct culture. They limited contact with other lands, and provided protection. The NORTHERN PLAIN is well watered by the Indus river, the Ganges river, and the Brahmaputra. These rivers are very sacred.The DECCAN plateau lacks the water for irrigation that the other two zones receive so it is sparsely populated. The Coastal Plains receive heavy seasonal rains which is great for agriculture. Monsoon has shaped Indian life. People welcome the rain to help with farming.

14 Well-organized government Most people were farmers
The earliest Indian civilization emerged in the Indus River valley(Pakistan) around 2500 B.C., flourished for about 1,000 years, then vanished without a trace. The people had: Well-organized government Most people were farmers First people to cultivate cotton and weave it into cloth Polytheistic; honored mother goddess; worship of sacred animals, especially cattle(the bull) Archeologists have yet to uncover names of rulers, tax records, literature, etc. But the Indus Valley civilizations covered the LARGEST territories until the rise of Persia 1000 years later. Government- The city was laid out in a grid pattern. All houses were built relatively the same. Houses were all CONSISTENT with each other showing uniform qualities. DRAINAGE and SEWERS. Water chutes that led into the sewers. TRADED many goods with Sumer. Cotton, Ivory, Grains. And Pearls. Veneration- Religious and symbolic act by giving honor to someone using a picture of that person. They HONORED images of cattle, maybe influencing future Indian beliefs.

15 Disappearance of the Indus River Valley Civilization
No one knows for certain why the cities were abandoned and forgotten. Scholars have proposed a number of theories: Too many trees were cut down. A devastating earthquake destroyed the region. A volcanic eruption caused the Indus to flood the city. Aryan invaders overran the region. By 1750 B.C. the quality of life for those in the Indus Valley started to decline. Perhaps too many trees were cut down to fuel the ovens of brick makers. A giant earthquake sent shockwaves through the city destroying everything in its wake. A volcano erupted sending streams of lava flowing through the cities. Others think the “end” came around 1500 B.C. when nomadic Aryan people came in from the North. They had horse drawn chariots and superior weapons and overran the Indus region which were then abandoned and forgotten. Next we will discuss these nomadic people to get a better sense of the cause behind the Indus Valley destruction.

16 Aryan Civilization(1500 B.C.)
Destroyed and looted the cities of the Indus Valley Nomadic warriors Felt superior to the people they conquered Polytheistic – Natural forces such as the sun, sky, storm, fire and Indra(God of War) Vedas – a collection of prayers, hymns, and assorted religious teachings The Aryans were a warlike people. They had hymns and prayers that reflected their status of warriors and looters. One of their poets had this to say about his people(This is also shown in the textbook): HAIL TO THE LORD OF THIEVES…HAIL TO THE DESTRUCTIVE ONES ARMED WITH SPEARS, HAIL TO THE LORD OF PLUNDERERS. HAIL TO THE ARCHERS, TO THOSE WHO STRETCH THE BOWSTRING, AND TO THOSE WHO TAKE AIM. DESTROYED and looted the Indus Valley civilization: They built new civilization along the GANGES river, RATHER than the Indus. POLYTHEISTIC: The worshipped many Gods. Indra’s weapon was the thunderbolt. HE used it to destroy demons. Vedas: We learn MOST of what we know about the Aryans from the Vedas. Depicted them as warriors who loved to fight in chariots with bows and arrows, loved eating, drinking, music, and dice games.

17 Aryan Expansion and Change
Expansion led to change in Aryan civilization because they: mingled with the people they conquered moved toward the idea of a single spiritual power called Brahman(resided in all things) developed the written language of Sanskrit(500 B.C.) through the blending of cultures Over the centuries, the Aryans would explore new territories, eventually leading to expansion, and CHANGE. RAJAH- the most SKILLED WAR LEADER, elected to his position by an ASSEMBLY of WARRIORS. WE SEE CULTURAL DIFFUSION through all of this expanding.

18 Epic Literature Two epic poems: the Mahabharata(muh HAH
bah rah tuh) and the Ramayana, tell us about Aryan life and values. The Mahabharata celebrates battle and reflects important Indian beliefs about the immortality of the soul The Ramayana celebrates a daring and adventurous hero and portrays the ideal woman as loyal and obedient to her husband. The Aryans had a strong tradition of oral literature. MIX of history, mythology, and religion. Mahabharata – India’s GREATEST epic. About how Aryan tribes gained control of the Ganges region. 100, 000 VERSES!!! Ramayana – About the hero Rama and his bride Sita. Rama had to save Sita from a demon named Ravana. Rama finally rescues Sita with the aid of a monkey general. Not as long as the Mahabharata. Aryan beliefs helped to form the framework of later Indian civilizations.

19 Geography of China China was the most isolated of the civilizations studied thus far As in Egypt and Mesopotamia, Chinese civilization began in a river valley, the Huang He(2000 B.C.) Physical barriers – To the WEST, the HIMALAYAS and DESERTS, blocked China from that part of the world. The EAST: the Pacific Ocean, The North- GOBI Desert, to the South, JUNGLES. Most of China’s contact would be with Nomads. Come rummaging through the cities. Huang He ; “RIVER OF SORROWS”. As soil would reach the bottom, it raised the water level and overflowed into villages. MASS STARVATION.

20 Chinese Civilization Under The Shang And The Zhou Dynasties
Shang Dynasty (1650 B.C.–1027B.C.) Gained control of corner of northern China along Huang He. Women had considerable status Held complex religious beliefs. Yin and Yang Zhou Dynasty (1027 B.C.–256 B.C.) Overthrew the Shang Promoted idea of Mandate of Heaven. They believed that the Gods were angry with the Shang Set up feudal state 1650 Chinese people called the Shang took control of Northern China. Drove off nomads: HAD LARGE palaces and tombs. Shang kings led other warriors into battle. Controlled by Princes and noblemen. Clan members – They share ANCESTRY. WOMEN HAD considerable status during the Shang Dynasty. Women owned land, and were even warriors. 2) Polytheistic!!!!! – Shang Di and a Mother Goddess who controlled plants and animals. Citizens would PRAY to the rulers and nobles in hopes of reaching out to the Gods. They believed that the rulers were links to the Gods and Goddesses of their land. YIN/YANG – the universe was balanced by TWO forces. Yin was linked to EARTH, DARKNESS, and FEMALE forces. YANG was linked to Heaven, light, and Male forces. They were not in opposition, there merely needed to be a BALANCE. ZHOU DYNASTY – marched out of their kingdom on the western frontier of China and take over. 1) MANDATE of HEAVEN- They wanted to validate their right to rule. They believed it was their DIVINE RIGHT to RULE. The Mandate of Heaven was used to explain the DYNASTIC CYCLE(the rise and fall of dynasties). Once a dynasty became weak or corrupt, another dynasty would come to take its place.

21 Chinese Achievements Discovered how to make silk thread
- Silk became China’s most valuable export Trade route to the Middle East became known as Silk Road Made the first books from wood or bamboo Made remarkable achievements in the art of bronzemaking At 256 B.C., China was large, wealthy, and highly organized. However, the feudal lords proved to difficult to control and continued to battle each other in bloody wars for control.

22 Hinduism and Buddhism Chapter 4

23 HINDUISM Has many gods and goddesses and many forms of worship.
All Hindus share certain basic beliefs: All the universe is part of the unchanging, all-powerful spiritual force called Brahman. Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva… The ultimate goal of existence is to achieve moksha, or union with Brahman To achieve moksha, people must free themselves from selfish desires One must obey the laws of karma Reincarnation allows people to continue working toward moksha through several lifetimes Ahisma – nonviolence; all living things are aspects of Brahman Unlike most religions, Hinduism has NO SINGLE FOUNDER and no single sacred book. HINDUISM’s foundation stems from the mixing of the people of the Indus Valley civilization’s beliefs, with the Aryan’s beliefs. ALL Hindu’s however, share certain basic beliefs… The concept of an ALL POWERFUL force is difficult to understand for most people, so the Hindus worship a variety of Gods that make up the Brahman. BRAHMA- the creator. Vishnu- The Preserver, and Shiva- the Destroyer. They each represent aspects of the Brahman. MOKSHA cannot be attained through one lifetime. KARMA- can be good or bad. Karma affects a person’s fate in the next life.

24 BUDDHISM Siddhartha Gautama – founder of Buddhism, had many teachings:
Life is full of suffering. The only cure for suffering is to follow the Eightfold Path, a middle road between a life devoted to pleasure and a life of harsh self-denial It is important to live a moral life Enlightenment is achieved through meditation The ultimate goal is nirvana, union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth 1) Gautama – born around 566 B.C. to an upper class family. His family had visions of him becoming a wandering holy man. To stop that his father had him locked on the palace grounds, surrounded by comfort and luxury. Beautiful wife, etc. One day, while wandering around the palace gardens, he saw a sick person, an old person, and a dead body. This upset him, so he left the palace, never to return. He wanted to discover the realm of life where there is no suffering or death. He sat under a giant tree for 48 days, determined to meditate and not movie until he understood the mystery of life. Evil spirits tempted him to move throughout those 48 days but he did not. He suddenly believed he understood the cause and the cure for suffering. He was now known as BUDDHA, The Enlightened one.

25 Hinduism/Buddhism Differences?
Similarities: They both stressed nonviolence They both believed in karma, moksha, and a cycle of rebirth Differences: Buddha rejected the rituals and many Gods of Hinduism. Buddha urged every person to seek enlightenment through meditation.

26 Hindu Centers in the U.S.

27 Confucianism, Legalism, Daoism, and Buddhism in China
Chapter 4

28 Teachings of Confucius
His ideas included: Harmony results when people accept their place in society Everyone has duties and responsibilities. Filial piety is the most important A ruler has the responsibility to provide good government. In return, the people would be respectful and loyal subjects Government leaders and officials should be well educated BORN in 551 B.C. To a poor family. Always wanted to become an advisor to a local ruler but found it DIFFICULT to find a job. Wandered from place to place trying to give advice to different rulers. Instead, he turned to TEACHING. His ideas INFLUENCED every area of Chinese life. The bigger Chinese civilization became, the more popular his teachings…

29 Legalism vs. Daoism Legalism Hanfeizi – “the nature of a man is evil”
The only way to achieve order is to pass strict laws and impose harsh punishments on lawbreakers The ruler alone possesses power Daoism Laozi – Taught people to live in harmony with nature Government is unnatural and is the cause of many problems The best government is the one that governs the least HANFEIZI (HANFAYZEE)– GOODNESS is something that you earn. GREED was the reason for most conflicts. The RULER possessed the power, because the only STRICT order would keep people in line. DAOISM- Taught to live in harmony with nature. Thought that people were too difficult to govern and control because governments themselves were to controlling.


31 Egyptian Gods and Goddesses

32 Mesopotamia

33 Ziggurat

34 Assyrians

35 Ganesh!

36 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.)
Chapter 5

37 Early People of the Aegean
The Minoans established a brilliant early civilization on the island of Crete Knossos – palace where the rulers of the Minoans lived Contained shrines to honor Gods and Goddesses The Mycenaeans conquered the Greek mainland and Crete They traded with Sicily, Italy, Egypt, and Mesopotamia Trojan War: Mycenae vs. Troy and Heinrich Schliemann Epics of Homer: Illiad and the Odyssey Near the Aegean Sea, Crete was home to the early civilization. We really don’t know what the people of this civilization called themselves, but the archeologist that discovered their ruins named them Minoans after MINOS, an early king of Crete. The success of Minoan civilization was based on TRADE, not WARFARE. In Knossos, there were PAINTINGS that depicted women enjoyed many rights, perhaps more so than in ANY other civilization. Around 1400 B.C. the civilization banished. VOLCANO, EARTHQUAKE, etc. Intruders certainly played a role in its demise. Intruders that spoke Greek.


39 Greek City-States Greece is part of the Balkan peninsula Mountains
Mountains divide the peninsula into isolated valleys. Off the Greek mainland are hundreds of small islands. Because of this, DO YOU THINK THEY HAD LARGE EMPIRES like the egyptians or the PERSIANS? The geography of the region prevented the Greeks from creating a large, united empire. Instead, they built many small city-states, cut off from one another by mountains or water. 3) The Greeks became skilled sailors, traveling and trading all over the Mediterranean The Greeks also EXPANDED on the Phoenician alphabet making it the basis for all Western alphabets. However, rapid BABY MAKING caused a population growth that would see the Greeks expand into other territories. CULTURE was spreading.

40 Athens and Sparta ATHENS SPARTA
Society grew into a limited democracy, or government by the people Education-focused SPARTA Rulers were two kings and a council of elders. Militaristic Sparta STRESSED military virtues and strong discipline, Athens stressed individual and political values. HELOTS – there were so many of them that were taken as slaves, that the Spartans had to have a strict control system so they wouldn’t get out of line. Citizens formed an ASSEMBLY that would approve all major decisions. They would elect the officials that would run the day-to-day affairs of Sparta. From CHILDHOOD, a Spartan would start their military training on whether they would be fit enough to be a part of the military state. Officials would examine every single child and sickly or deformed children were abandoned to die. Spartans needed to be healthy. Their training included a strict diet, hard exercise, and harsh discipline. CUNNING – they were encouraged to steal food. If caught, they would be beaten. If they showed any sense of COWARDICE< they would be BEATEN – Stealing a fox. AGE 20, MEN could marry, but had to live in the barracks for another 10 years and eat there for another 40 YEARS. 3) Girls also had a tough upbringing. They had to exercise and strengthen their bodies like the men, something no other Greek woman was expected to do. The Spartans had little use for art and ideas. Many Greeks ADMIRED their sense of battle and spirit, but wondered about their ways… ATHENIANS Athenian government was a monarchy at first, but then as the landowners gained power, it turned into an aristocracy. However, the warrior class and the merchant class were upset. They believed their services entitle them to more rights. As discontent with the government grew, Athens moved toward a DEMOCRACY. 2) The Assembly was made into an actual LEGISLATURE(LAW MAKING BODY) that debated laws before approving and rejecting them. Similar to what we have TODAY. Athens gave more people a say in important decisions that any other civilization we’ve gone over so far. 3) UNFORTUNATELY, for women…they had no share in the decision making. The only things women “lorded” over was household chores. Girls received little to NO education at all. Greek Philosopher, ARISTOTLE(380 B.C.) stated that “the man is by nature fitter for command than the female” 4) Boys education was well rounded focusing on music, poetry, public speaking, and even military training.

41 Persian Wars 431 B.C. – warfare broke out between Athens and Sparta
492 B.C. King Darius – “Earth and Water” Victory over the Persians increased the Greeks’ sense of their own uniqueness Athens emerged as the most powerful city-state 431 B.C. – warfare broke out between Athens and Sparta Sparta and Persia – 404 B.C. Aftermath: Athenian domination of the Greek world ended By 500 B.C. Athens was the wealthiest Greek city-state and was extremely prosperous. The Persians, continuing their trek of conquering and dominance, was able to CONQUER IONIA. However, they did NOT like being a part of Persia. Resenting their situation, they REBELLED. Athens sent some of their ships to HELP. This ANGERED King Darius of Persia. Seeking revenge for this “insult” he sent messengers asking for earth and water. Many other Greek city-states obeyed Darius’ demands. Two did not. Those two were Athens and SPARTA. The Persians could collect their own water. Darius was sending huge armies across the Aegean Sea to punish all of the Greeks, especially the Athenians for their interference. The Athenians asked for HELP, but received LITTLE support. The Persians would use arrows to help in their onslaught, but the Athenians kept coming forward, FORCING the Persians back onto their ships. Themistocles urged his Athenians to build a fleet of naval warships to continue the battle. Don’t keep your eyes set on a land battle.

42 Greek Philosophers Some Greek thinkers used observation and reason to find causes for what happened. The Greeks called these thinkers philosophers Rhetoric – the art of skillful speaking Greek Art stressed realism They challenged the belief that the events and wars were dictated by the Gods. Persian Wars, Pelopopessian War, etc.

43 Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
Developed Socratic method, whereby a series of questions are posed in order to challenge implications of answers Plato Emphasized importance of reason Believed the ideal state should regulate every aspect of citizens’ lives to provide for their best interest Aristotle Favored rule by single strong and virtuous leader He promoted reason as the guiding force for learning. Socrates did NOT write any books. He was a poor man, by most accounts, who would wander about asking questions making people contradict themselves. Most of what we know about Socrates comes from his student PLATO.When he was 70, he was put on trial. His enemies believed he was corrupting the YOUTH and failing to respect the Gods. He was found GUILTY and was forced to drink a cup of poison. Plato was a student of Socrates. His death made him extremely upset. Plato thought, in general, MEN SURPASSED WOMEN in MENTAL AND PHYSICAL TASKS. Aristotle created a school called LYCEUM. POLITICS, ETHICS, LOGIC, BIOLOGY. The first European universities had courses based on his works.

44 Alexander the Great Philip of Macedonia conquered Greece. He was assassinated before he could fulfill his dream of conquering the Persian empire Alexander won his first victory against the Persians at the Granicus River. He then conquered Asia Minor, Palestine, Egypt, and Babylon While planning his next battle campaign, Alexander died of a sudden fever Alexander’s most lasting achievement was the spread of Greek culture Alexander had encouraged this blending by marrying a Persian woman and adopting Persian customs MACEDONIA was a Greek civilization in the North. Mountainous, considered half-civilized by other Greeks. Philip gained the throne in 359 B.C. His FIRST dream was to conquer the Greek city-states to the South. He DID. ASSASSINATED At his daughters wedding beforehe could conquer PERSIA. ALEXANDER was only 20 years old when he was put to the throne. He was an experienced soldier who continued his fathers dream. PERSIA was no longer the major power it had once been. Led by Darius III. ALEXANDER FACED WAR ELEPHANTS AND HAD TO RETREAT. HE HAD YET TO LOSE IN BATTLE UNTIL NOW. His soldiers were tired and wanted to go home. Died in BABYLON. When he died, it is written throughout history, that when his commanders asked him who his empire should go to, he whispered with his DYING BREATH – “TO THE STRONGEST” No one really proved to be “the strongest” so 3 generals divided his empire and took over. MACEDONIA and GREECE, EGYPT, and PERSIA.

45 The Empire of Alexander the Great

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