Presentation on theme: "Early Civilizations Chapters 1-3. The Old Stone Age(Paleolithic Age) The earliest period in human history Mary and Louis Leakey - Africa 1959 Donald Johanson."— Presentation transcript:
Early Civilizations Chapters 1-3
The Old Stone Age(Paleolithic Age) The earliest period in human history Mary and Louis Leakey - Africa 1959 Donald Johanson – “ Lucy ” found in Africa 1974 Named after a Beatles song(The Beatles are terrible) Old Stone age – 2.5 million B.C. to 10,000 B.C. Nomads – Still around today?
Nomads These people: made simple tools and weapons out of stone, bone, or wood developed a spoken language invented clothing(animal skins) used caves and rocky overhangs for shelter learned to build fires for warmth and cooking
Early Spiritual and Religious Beliefs 30,000 years ago – The first evidence of spiritual belief Animism - the belief that the world is full of spirits and forces that might reside in animals, objects, or dreams Stone statues Early people began burying their dead with care, suggesting a belief in life after death
New Stone Age(Neolithic) 11,000 B.C. – Nomads began producing their own food through agriculture Because of farming, permanent villages were created and inhabited by humans Domestication of animals Growth in population New Technology: calendars, animal plows, tools, cloth weaving
How did cities emerge? Where? Farmers began cultivating lands along river valleys and producing surplus or extra, food Surpluses helped populations expand As populations grew, some villages swelled into cities Middle East, Egypt, India, and China
Problems, Solutions, and Expansion Rivers caused flooding. Farmers constructed dams, canals, and irrigation ditches to help Walls were being built around cities
8 Features of Civilization Cities = civilization Well-organized central governments Complex religions – Polytheistic Job specialization Social classes – Priests, Warriors, Merchants, Farmers, Weavers, Slaves Arts and architecture Public works Writing - scribes
How Civilizations Spread… Civilizations spread when ancient rulers gained more power and conquered territories beyond the boundaries of their cities Powerful rulers created city- states and empires A city-state included a city and its surrounding lands and villages. An empire is a group of states or territories controlled by one ruler Civilizations change when the physical environment changes. Interactions among people also cause cultures to change. For example, cultural diffusion. Cultural diffusion is the spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another. Cultural diffusion occurred through migration, trade, and warfare. Nomads would sometimes be absorbed.
Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile Nile River Egyptians depended on floods to soak the land and deposit silt Egyptians built dikes, reservoirs, and irrigation ditches Rulers used the Nile to unite Upper and Lower Egypt
Old Kingdom and the Middle Kingdom Old Kingdom 2686 B.C. – 2150 B.C. Pharaohs organized a strong central state, were absolute rulers, and were considered Gods Egyptians built pyramids at Giza Middle Kingdom 2030 B.C. – 1640 B.C.(King Mentuhotep II) Traders had contacts with Middle East and Crete Corruption and rebellions were common New Kingdom Powerful pharaohs created a large empire that reached the Euphrates River Ramses and Hatshepsut Egypt and Nubia
Early Civilizations in India and China(2500 B.C. – 256 B.C.) Chapter 3
Indus Valley Civilization The Indus Valley is located on the subcontinent of India The subcontinent is divided into three major zones: northern plain, Deccan, and coastal plains The rivers of India, particularly the Ganges, are considered sacred
The earliest Indian civilization emerged in the Indus River valley(Pakistan) around 2500 B.C., flourished for about 1,000 years, then vanished without a trace. The people had: Well-organized government Most people were farmers First people to cultivate cotton and weave it into cloth Polytheistic; honored mother goddess; worship of sacred animals, especially cattle(the bull)
Disappearance of the Indus River Valley Civilization No one knows for certain why the cities were abandoned and forgotten. Scholars have proposed a number of theories: Too many trees were cut down. A devastating earthquake destroyed the region. A volcanic eruption caused the Indus to flood the city. Aryan invaders overran the region.
Aryan Civilization(1500 B.C.) Destroyed and looted the cities of the Indus Valley Nomadic warriors Felt superior to the people they conquered Polytheistic – Natural forces such as the sun, sky, storm, fire and Indra(God of War) Vedas – a collection of prayers, hymns, and assorted religious teachings
Aryan Expansion and Change Expansion led to change in Aryan civilization because they: mingled with the people they conquered moved toward the idea of a single spiritual power called Brahman(resided in all things) developed the written language of Sanskrit(500 B.C.) through the blending of cultures
Epic Literature Two epic poems: the Mahabharata(muh HAH bah rah tuh) and the Ramayana, tell us about Aryan life and values. The Mahabharata celebrates battle and reflects important Indian beliefs about the immortality of the soul The Ramayana celebrates a daring and adventurous hero and portrays the ideal woman as loyal and obedient to her husband.
Geography of China China was the most isolated of the civilizations studied thus far As in Egypt and Mesopotamia, Chinese civilization began in a river valley, the Huang He(2000 B.C.)
Chinese Civilization Under The Shang And The Zhou Dynasties Shang Dynasty (1650 B.C.–1027B.C.) Gained control of corner of northern China along Huang He. Women had considerable status Held complex religious beliefs. Yin and Yang Zhou Dynasty (1027 B.C.–256 B.C.) Overthrew the Shang Promoted idea of Mandate of Heaven. They believed that the Gods were angry with the Shang Set up feudal state
Chinese Achievements Discovered how to make silk thread - Silk became China’s most valuable export Trade route to the Middle East became known as Silk Road Made the first books from wood or bamboo Made remarkable achievements in the art of bronzemaking
Hinduism and Buddhism Chapter 4
HINDUISM Has many gods and goddesses and many forms of worship. All Hindus share certain basic beliefs: All the universe is part of the unchanging, all-powerful spiritual force called Brahman. Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva… The ultimate goal of existence is to achieve moksha, or union with Brahman To achieve moksha, people must free themselves from selfish desires One must obey the laws of karma Reincarnation allows people to continue working toward moksha through several lifetimes Ahisma – nonviolence; all living things are aspects of Brahman
BUDDHISM Siddhartha Gautama – founder of Buddhism, had many teachings: Life is full of suffering. The only cure for suffering is to follow the Eightfold Path, a middle road between a life devoted to pleasure and a life of harsh self-denial It is important to live a moral life Enlightenment is achieved through meditation The ultimate goal is nirvana, union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth
Hinduism/Buddhism Differences? Similarities: They both stressed nonviolence They both believed in karma, moksha, and a cycle of rebirth Differences: Buddha rejected the rituals and many Gods of Hinduism. Buddha urged every person to seek enlightenment through meditation.
Hindu Centers in the U.S.
Confucianism, Legalism, Daoism, and Buddhism in China Chapter 4
Teachings of Confucius His ideas included: Harmony results when people accept their place in society Everyone has duties and responsibilities. Filial piety is the most important A ruler has the responsibility to provide good government. In return, the people would be respectful and loyal subjects Government leaders and officials should be well educated
Legalism vs. Daoism Legalism Hanfeizi – “the nature of a man is evil” The only way to achieve order is to pass strict laws and impose harsh punishments on lawbreakers The ruler alone possesses power Daoism Laozi – Taught people to live in harmony with nature Government is unnatural and is the cause of many problems The best government is the one that governs the least
Egyptian Gods and Goddesses
Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Chapter 5
Early People of the Aegean The Minoans established a brilliant early civilization on the island of Crete Knossos – palace where the rulers of the Minoans lived Contained shrines to honor Gods and Goddesses The Mycenaeans conquered the Greek mainland and Crete They traded with Sicily, Italy, Egypt, and Mesopotamia Trojan War: Mycenae vs. Troy and Heinrich Schliemann Epics of Homer: Illiad and the Odyssey
Greek City-States Greece is part of the Balkan peninsula Mountains
Athens and Sparta ATHENS Society grew into a limited democracy, or government by the people Education-focused SPARTA Rulers were two kings and a council of elders. Militaristic
Persian Wars 492 B.C. King Darius – “ Earth and Water ” Victory over the Persians increased the Greeks’ sense of their own uniqueness Athens emerged as the most powerful city-state 431 B.C. – warfare broke out between Athens and Sparta Sparta and Persia – 404 B.C. Aftermath: Athenian domination of the Greek world ended
Greek Philosophers Some Greek thinkers used observation and reason to find causes for what happened. The Greeks called these thinkers philosophers Rhetoric – the art of skillful speaking Greek Art stressed realism
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle Socrates Developed Socratic method, whereby a series of questions are posed in order to challenge implications of answers Plato Emphasized importance of reason Believed the ideal state should regulate every aspect of citizens’ lives to provide for their best interest Aristotle Favored rule by single strong and virtuous leader He promoted reason as the guiding force for learning.
Alexander the Great Philip of Macedonia conquered Greece. He was assassinated before he could fulfill his dream of conquering the Persian empire Alexander won his first victory against the Persians at the Granicus River. He then conquered Asia Minor, Palestine, Egypt, and Babylon While planning his next battle campaign, Alexander died of a sudden fever Alexander’s most lasting achievement was the spread of Greek culture Alexander had encouraged this blending by marrying a Persian woman and adopting Persian customs