3 Geography and History Geography Study of people, their environment and the resources available to themFive themes that show the relationship between geography and human historyLocationRelative LocationWhere one place is located in relation another placeExact LocationDetermined by latitude and longitudeExample: Seoul, South Korea is located at 37ºN, 127ºE
4 Geography and History (Con’t) PlaceThe physical features and human characteristics of that locationHuman-Environment InteractionHow humans have been shaped by the environment and vice versaMovementThe movement of people, goods and ideasTrade is a major example
5 Geography and History (Con’t) RegionDivision of the world based on different characteristicsMissouri is in the Region called the Midwest, or BreadbasketIraq is located in the Region called the Middle East
6 How Do We Know? Prehistory Anthropology Long period of time before the invention of writing systemsHistory passed on by storiesAnthropologyOrigins and development of people and their societies
7 How Do We Know? (Con’t) Archaeology Find and analyze the material remains of humans and animalsArtifactsObjects made by human beingsTools, weapons, pottery, etc.Today, Archaeologist have traced the development of technologyThey also use modern technology to study and interpret their findings
8 How Do We Know? (Con’t) Geologist Historians Study the rocks to help determine the age of artifacts and conditions on earth at that timeHistoriansStudy how people lived in the pastThey study artifacts and especially written documentsDesire to understand the questions… Who? What? Where? When? And most importantly… Why?
10 The Old Stone Age Also known as the Paleolithic Age African Beginnings 2 million B.C. to 10,000 B.C.African BeginningsOldest humanlike bones found in AfricaTheory suggest life started in Africa
11 The Old Stone Age (Con’t) Hunters and Food GathersPaleolithic people were nomadsMoving place to place as they followed game animals and ripening fruitUsed very primitive weaponsEventually developed spoken languageLived through ice agesDevelopment of glaciers throughout earth
12 Early Religious Beliefs Use of animismBelief the world is full of spirits and forces that reside in animals, objects and dreamsEventually people began burying their dead
13 The Neolithic Agricultural Revolution Development of the New Stone AgeLearned to farm around 11,000 B.C.Some people moved away from being nomadicAlso began domesticating animalsThe population began to explodeNo greater change in population would happen again till around 1700’s A.D.Development of wealth with the growth of individual’s personal property
14 New Technology Development of: CalendarsUse of oxen or water buffalos to plowBetter, more smooth toolsWeaving of clothing beginsTechnologies were not the same in all parts of the worldNeolithic period led to the creation of civilizations
16 The Rise of Cities Civilization River Valley Civilizations (RVC) Complex, highly organized social orderFirst began developing along River ValleysRiver Valley Civilizations (RVC)Tigris and Euphrates in Middle EastNile River in EgyptIndus River in IndiaYellow River in China
17 The Rise of Cities (Con’t) Common conditions:Rivers flooded annuallyAnimals flock to riversRegular water supply and for of transportationDevelopment of walls, temples, palaces, etc.
18 Features of Civilization CitiesOrganized GovernmentStarted out ruled by elders or priestThen powerful rulers took and claimed power from GodsBecame more complex as laws, taxes and systems of defense developed
19 Features of Civilization (Con’t) Complex ReligionsMost were polytheisticBelieved in many GodsUsed ceremonies like construction of temples and sacrifices to appease the God’sJob specializationDevelopment of artisans, or skilled craft workersNo longer could one person specializes in all crafts
20 Features of Civilization (Con’t) Social ClassesRanking based on jobsPriest normally top and slaves lowestArts and ArchitectureExpressed the beliefs and values of the peopleNormally beautiful temples, statues etc.
21 Features of Civilization (Con’t) Public WorksIrrigation systemsRoadsBridgesDefensive wallsWritingEarliest writings were pictogramsDrawings representing objectsOnly scribes learned to read
22 Spread of Civilization Developed into city-statesA political unit that included a city and its surrounding landsPower struggles help build empiresA group of states or territories under one rulerNomads continued their way of life, many on steppes
23 Civilizations and Change Environments greatly changed human life in these civilizationsDroughtsFloodsVolcanic eruptionsCould be human causedOver farmingOveruse of resources
24 Civilizations and Change (Con’t) Development of Cultural DiffusionSpread of ideas, customs and technologies from one people to anotherTrade the biggest reason for cultural diffusionWarfare caused forceful cultural diffusion many times