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Chapter 1: Prehistory – 300 B.C.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1: Prehistory – 300 B.C."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1: Prehistory – 300 B.C.
World History Chapter 1: Prehistory – 300 B.C.

2 Section 1 Understanding Our Past

3 Geography and History Geography
Study of people, their environment and the resources available to them Five themes that show the relationship between geography and human history Location Relative Location Where one place is located in relation another place Exact Location Determined by latitude and longitude Example: Seoul, South Korea is located at 37ºN, 127ºE

4 Geography and History (Con’t)
Place The physical features and human characteristics of that location Human-Environment Interaction How humans have been shaped by the environment and vice versa Movement The movement of people, goods and ideas Trade is a major example

5 Geography and History (Con’t)
Region Division of the world based on different characteristics Missouri is in the Region called the Midwest, or Breadbasket Iraq is located in the Region called the Middle East

6 How Do We Know? Prehistory Anthropology
Long period of time before the invention of writing systems History passed on by stories Anthropology Origins and development of people and their societies

7 How Do We Know? (Con’t) Archaeology
Find and analyze the material remains of humans and animals Artifacts Objects made by human beings Tools, weapons, pottery, etc. Today, Archaeologist have traced the development of technology They also use modern technology to study and interpret their findings

8 How Do We Know? (Con’t) Geologist Historians
Study the rocks to help determine the age of artifacts and conditions on earth at that time Historians Study how people lived in the past They study artifacts and especially written documents Desire to understand the questions… Who? What? Where? When? And most importantly… Why?

9 Section 2 The Dawn of History

10 The Old Stone Age Also known as the Paleolithic Age African Beginnings
2 million B.C. to 10,000 B.C. African Beginnings Oldest humanlike bones found in Africa Theory suggest life started in Africa

11 The Old Stone Age (Con’t)
Hunters and Food Gathers Paleolithic people were nomads Moving place to place as they followed game animals and ripening fruit Used very primitive weapons Eventually developed spoken language Lived through ice ages Development of glaciers throughout earth

12 Early Religious Beliefs
Use of animism Belief the world is full of spirits and forces that reside in animals, objects and dreams Eventually people began burying their dead

13 The Neolithic Agricultural Revolution
Development of the New Stone Age Learned to farm around 11,000 B.C. Some people moved away from being nomadic Also began domesticating animals The population began to explode No greater change in population would happen again till around 1700’s A.D. Development of wealth with the growth of individual’s personal property

14 New Technology Development of:
Calendars Use of oxen or water buffalos to plow Better, more smooth tools Weaving of clothing begins Technologies were not the same in all parts of the world Neolithic period led to the creation of civilizations

15 Section 3 Beginnings of Civilizations

16 The Rise of Cities Civilization River Valley Civilizations (RVC)
Complex, highly organized social order First began developing along River Valleys River Valley Civilizations (RVC) Tigris and Euphrates in Middle East Nile River in Egypt Indus River in India Yellow River in China

17 The Rise of Cities (Con’t)
Common conditions: Rivers flooded annually Animals flock to rivers Regular water supply and for of transportation Development of walls, temples, palaces, etc.

18 Features of Civilization
Cities Organized Government Started out ruled by elders or priest Then powerful rulers took and claimed power from Gods Became more complex as laws, taxes and systems of defense developed

19 Features of Civilization (Con’t)
Complex Religions Most were polytheistic Believed in many Gods Used ceremonies like construction of temples and sacrifices to appease the God’s Job specialization Development of artisans, or skilled craft workers No longer could one person specializes in all crafts

20 Features of Civilization (Con’t)
Social Classes Ranking based on jobs Priest normally top and slaves lowest Arts and Architecture Expressed the beliefs and values of the people Normally beautiful temples, statues etc.

21 Features of Civilization (Con’t)
Public Works Irrigation systems Roads Bridges Defensive walls Writing Earliest writings were pictograms Drawings representing objects Only scribes learned to read

22 Spread of Civilization
Developed into city-states A political unit that included a city and its surrounding lands Power struggles help build empires A group of states or territories under one ruler Nomads continued their way of life, many on steppes

23 Civilizations and Change
Environments greatly changed human life in these civilizations Droughts Floods Volcanic eruptions Could be human caused Over farming Overuse of resources

24 Civilizations and Change (Con’t)
Development of Cultural Diffusion Spread of ideas, customs and technologies from one people to another Trade the biggest reason for cultural diffusion Warfare caused forceful cultural diffusion many times

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