Presentation on theme: "Early Civilizations. I. Civilization Permanent settlements, such as Catal Huyuk, led to emergence of civilization Societies that rely on agriculture,"— Presentation transcript:
I. Civilization Permanent settlements, such as Catal Huyuk, led to emergence of civilization Societies that rely on agriculture, produce food surpluses Have formal political organization, other long-lasting institutions Characterized by groups of non-farming elites, merchant and manufacturing groups, other specialized workers Writing Essential to civilization for communication, record keeping, establishment of law and order Cuneiform – first known system of writing, emerged in Middle East (Sumer) around 3500 B.C.E.
II. Tigris-Euphrates Rivers Located in modern-day Iraqmodern-day Iraq Often called Mesopotamia (land between the rivers) First example of human civilization Began B.C.E. Complex religious beliefs Sumerians erected shrines and massive monuments/towers, called ziggurats, to honor gods Some ideas (gods creation of earth, floods) can be found in various proto-religions Judaism – earliest monotheistic religion
II. continued… Highly organized Relied on city-states – small, autonomous regions ruled by a king, with developed urban center Developed strict class systems – kings, noble class, priests controlled most land Regulated system of laws and courts Babylonian leader, Hammurabi, set early code of law in stone
II. Nile River Located in northern Africa, modern-day Egyptnorthern Africa, modern-day Egypt Began around 3000 B.C.E. Ruled by a pharaoh, or god-king Considered to be directly descended from the gods Complex religious and political rituals Polytheistic Theocracy – ruled through laws based on religious beliefs/through religious leaders Development of writing Hieroglyphics – comes from Greek words meaning sacred carving More complex than cuneiform Used papyrus reeds to make a paper-like writing surface
IV. Indus River Located in modern-day Pakistan, near Indias bordermodern-day Pakistan, near Indias border Began around 2500 B.C.E. Known for its advanced cities Sophisticated city planning (grid-like patterns), running water Harappa, Mohenjo Daro Limited trade with Mesopotamia, but developed independently Developed system of writing, but never been translated Thought to be a theocracy, religion a precursor to Hinduism Environment and invasions a factor in disappearance Monsoons, floods Nomadic invaders took over, abandoned cities
V. Huanghe (Yellow River) Located in northern half of modern-day Chinanorthern half of modern-day China Began about 2000 B.C.E. Developed independently from other civilizations Largely cut off from contact with outside world by geography (desert, mountains, ocean) Developed sophisticated irrigations systems Controlled flooding of Yellow River Early pioneers in science and weapon/tool-making Developed unique written language based on ideographic symbols Early religious beliefs based on spirits, centered around respect for elders Social classes divided society Established system of feudalism – nobles owned all the land that peasants worked Rigid political system develops – paves way for dynasty system Shang dynasty was earliest – 1500 B.C.E.