To Actively Manage LD Realities for secondary teachers in the mainstream classroom The adolescent learner The diverse learning needs of students
To Actively Manage LD Realities for the learning support teacher in a secondary setting Sharing information regarding students Sharing strategies that ‘enable’ all students
Within the student 62% Within the family background or culture 14% Within the peer group 3% Within the curriculum 8% Within the teaching approach 2% Within the student /teacher relationship 4% Within the school/classroom environment 6% Other 1% Westwood, 1995. A study of 300 Australian teachers
Year 8 Science Setting the Scene How did this opportunity come about? Who was involved? Why was it successful?
Teacher concerns Topic: Separating mixtures In the past, a poorly done outcome task, how can we (the teachers) improve? Students have difficulty writing the report Students don’t ‘think through’ the separation processes even though we ‘teach’ each one Students don’t seem to ‘get it’ when given the Outcome Task
A diversity of learners mixed abilities a range of learning difficulties/disabilities central auditory processing hearing impairment, Ascertainment Level 4 ADD, ADHD Poor fine motor skills Poor writing skills and spelling
Collaboration Bringing bodies of expert knowledge together Science and learning support Removing some of the barriers in the path of students experiencing learning difficulties enhancing teachers’ repertoire of teaching strategies ‘knowing’ your students One in Eleven students has a language learning disability (Brent, Gough, Robinson, 2001)
Raising teacher awareness Curriculum specific language is critical for learning 1 in 11 students has a language learning disability The increasing demands of the secondary curriculum for all adolescent learners Common misconceptions Students should have basic literacy skills in place These students should be the responsibility of the Learning Support teacher Students should be responsible for their own organisation The English Department is primarily responsible for teaching writing skills
How would you separate the powdered clay that clings to the peas? Continue your flow chart of cards on the A3 sheet.
Why were the learning outcomes positive for this class of students? Included socially and academically in their groups Group arrangement provided natural scaffolding so that students with difficulties were able to do the task Peers could give immediate help when needed Relaxed relationship between students and teacher Activity required students to be involved in doing and verbalising, telling the story, using the language
Students had time to clarify the question, think through the problem and respond Teacher did not suggest solution, but asked questions that led students to the next step Teacher gave clear, explicit instructions, students knew what they were expected to do Games approach
Heads of Department Meeting Sharing literacy results Sharing teaching strategies that worked Using other ‘experts’ Speech and Language Pathologist Inviting, creating discussion
Teaching strategies Modelling Oral Visual Physical A structure to follow Gives entry into an activity Clarifies for students what they should learn
Scaffolding Teachers need to know when to add or dismantle scaffolding Graphic organisers Models Meets the need of visual learners Walks students through the activity
As students make progress, scaffolding is removed or replaced. The aim is to make students aware of the ways in which strategies can help them learn more effectively.
Direct and Explicit teaching Students know what is expected of them Short, carefully sequenced steps Identifies what is important Explicit scaffolding Teaches strategies Can be whole class, small group or individual Provides a structure that can be added to or removed
Groups Focus on the students reaching their own understanding Need to be actively constructed, requirements of activity Allow students to ‘feed off’ one another’s ideas Teachers have more opportunities to assess learning Gives students time they need for processing instructions Reduces pressure on students Encourages all students to respond Opportunity for peer tutoring
A whole school commitment Individual teachers make a difference Innovative practices Whole school commitment makes the greatest impact