Use lesson study to develop a novel approach to assessing the learning needs of pupils with learning difficulties. 2 broad and inter-related aims: 1. to use Lesson Study (LS) principles and procedures to develop a novel classroom based ‘response to teaching’ method of assessing the learning needs of pupils who have difficulties in their learning; 2. to evaluate this assessment strategy and then further develop it.
Moderate Learning Difficulties (MLD) lesson study project: used LS as a systematic professional learning approach that enhanced teachers’ knowledge and their use of teaching strategies for pupils with MLD
Origin of assessment idea: MLD project showed that LS helped teachers to better understand the needs of pupils with MLD Some participating teachers thought that LS could also be relevant to a ‘diagnostic’ assessment of pupils’ learning needs. As LS procedures involve observational assessment of learning in response to planned teaching in a classroom context, It can be adapted as a ‘response to teaching’ or systematic formative approach to assessment.
What makes Lesson Study relevant for assessment purposes? its collaborative model of planning, doing and reviewing of short sequence of specific lessons in terms of pupil learning (3 research lessons in a LS cycle). its focus on the learning of specific pupils (case pupils) that enables a depth of assessment and analysis of pupil and learning environment (pupil’s strengths and difficulties as well as contextual supports and barriers). collaboration brings together and integrate different assessment perspectives and knowledge bases: from a class teacher, SEN teacher, such as a SEN coordinator, a teaching assistant as well as an outside professional, such as specialist teachers and educational psychologists. the review and planning can also take account of the pupil’s perspective.
Assessment by response to teaching: Formative : to promote learning – assessment for learning Versus Summative : to identify what has been learned – assessment of learning 2 dimensions of assessment : i.Assessment context: individual withdrawal versus class lesson Assessments can be done: - in a classroom context at the end of a period of teaching and learning OR by the withdrawal of a pupil to an individual assessment setting. ii. Assessment method: static (unassisted) versus dynamic (assisted) assessment Static assessments: administering some tasks and seeing how well the pupil does on this task. The focus here is only on learner performance and attainments. Dynamic assessment involves monitoring how well a pupil responds to teaching a challenging task. The dual focus is on the degree of learning gain in relation to the kinds of teaching that support this gain.
Context of assessment Individual withdrawalClass teaching Assessment method StaticAssessment of individual curriculum attainments Assessment of curriculum attainments in class teaching context DynamicResponse to teaching assessment to non curriculum tasks, e.g. Feuerstein Learning Potential Assessment Device Response to teaching in class teaching context This is kind of assessment used in this project Two dimensions of assessment underlying assessment by response to teaching model
Dynamic assessment: interactively assessing learner needs in terms of pupil responses to varied teaching approaches: – provides insights into the unique nature of individual learning, and – so enable teachers to design individually tailored interventions (Campione and Brown, 1987). related to response to instruction (RTI) methods of assessing special educational needs (Vaughn and Fuchs, 2003) and Wave model adopted in National Strategies interactive model of learning difficulties: – difficulties arise from the interaction of child and contextual factors, such as the quality of teaching and learning environment. – assessment is not just about what a pupil can/cannot do, – but what can/cannot be done in response to varied and relevant teaching approaches (Vygotskian idea of the zone of proximal development) have tended to focus on intellectual abilities and been confined to individual withdrawal use: – by educational psychologists (Elliott, 2003) or – speech and language therapists (Hasan and Joffe, 2007).
1.Concerns about learning progress: What has been tried? 2. Select 2 pupils for LS assessment 3. Collect relevant information about 2 pupils 4. Review & planning meeting 1 5. Research Lesson 1: observation & interview pupils STEPS IN LESSON STUDY FOR ASSESSMENT PROCESS (goes with assessment questions flow chart) 7. Research Lesson 2: observation & interview pupils 6. Review & planning meeting 2 9. Research Lesson 3: observation & and pupil interview 8. Review & planning meeting 3 10. Review LSs: answer assessment questions: meeting 4 11. Develop personal programme based on assessment 12. Review learning outcomes LESSON STUDY PHASE PRELIMINARY PHASE PERSONALISED PLAN PHASE
Teach RL: Observe RL Consult pupils Is pupil engaged and progressing? Extend goal for next RL Are teaching methods and conditions appropriate? Keep RL goals; change methods Are goals appropriate? What else is going on? Change goals for next RL Make other changes Plan next RL Have 3 RLs been completed? Draw together findings: Complete assessment based on LS NO YES NO YES NO Is pupil engaged and progressing What else is going on?