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{. All Organic Compounds Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbon Derivatives Standard Hydrocarbons with C x H x Hydrocarbons..(C’s and H’s) BUT ALSO.

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Presentation on theme: "{. All Organic Compounds Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbon Derivatives Standard Hydrocarbons with C x H x Hydrocarbons..(C’s and H’s) BUT ALSO."— Presentation transcript:

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10 All Organic Compounds Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbon Derivatives Standard Hydrocarbons with C x H x Hydrocarbons..(C’s and H’s) BUT ALSO other elements.

11 halogen Organic Halides: are when 1 or more hydrogens have been replaced by a halogen (Group 17; F, Cl, Br, I) The element itself (Organic Halide) is its own functional group and is named the same as any other branch group. 1 2

12 Practice (Easy) ***Name the side branches alphabetically just like with ethy and methy, etc.***

13 Practice (Cyclo/Benzene)

14 UNSATURATED hydrocarbons react with diatomic This type of reaction occurs when UNSATURATED hydrocarbons react with diatomic molecules like; H2H2 Cl 2 Br 2 I2I2 HBr HCl HI adds BOTH The addition of these diatomic molecules saturate the hydrocarbon…..breaks the double or triple bonds and adds BOTH onto the chain.

15 HH ***Addition of H 2 breaks the double bond and adds the hydrogens onto the hydrocarbon.***

16 ***For every diatomic molecule you add to a UNSATURATED hydrocarbon it break a bond…so it breaks the “unsaturations” step by step.*** Cl H Step 1

17 Cl H Step 2 2, 2 – dichloropropane Cl H

18 SATURATED hydrocarbons react with diatomic This type of reaction occurs when SATURATED hydrocarbons react with diatomic molecules like; H2H2 Cl 2 Br 2 I2I2 HBr HCl HI adds ONE The substitution of these diatomic molecules trade places with hydrogens already in the hydrocarbon…..breaks the SINGLE BOND and adds ONE onto the chain. The second joins with substituted element and forms another compound that leaves the hydrocarbon chain.

19 Just indicates a common catalyst…DOES NOT MAKE A DIFFERENCE!!! Cl

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22 Such as; 1. Higher Solubility in water. 2. Increased boiling point. 3. Short-Chain alcohols (less than 3 C’s are VERY soluble. 4. Long chain alcohols (more than 5) are slightly soluble. Adding an alcohol(OH-) Functional Group to a hydrocarbon drastically changes the properties of the hydrocarbon.

23 Methanol and Ethanol Methanol (CH3OH) Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) Methanol (CH3OH) AND Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) are the two most common alcohols. ***Because Methanol and Ethanol only differ from one another by a “CH2” they are part of a “ homologous series ”.*** Homologous Series: A series of compounds that only differ by a single repeated “group”. CH 3 OH CH 2 CH 3 CH 2 OHCH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH Methanol Ethanol Propanol Butanol

24 Alcohol… Alcohol was is made by fermentation (yeast, baking, making bread). Alcohol is poisonous, the “drunk” feeling is the feeling of being poisoned. The disorientation and loss of motor functions (stumbling) is because YOU ARE BEING POISONED! Ethanol CH3CH2OH is the ONLY alcohol that wont outright kill you. So….. DON’T TRY TO MAKE IT….IT COULD BE WRONG.

25 Alcohol… Alcohol added to fuel to help it burn more efficiently. Alcohol often added to fuel to as gas line antifreeze. CH3OH (methanol) is TOXIC. Add methanol to Ethanol (alcohol you could drink) makes IT TOXIC TOO. Ethanol used in; Lacquers. Varnishes. Perfume. Synthetic Flavours.

26 Naming Alcohols Hydrocarbons that contain alcohols are named THE SAME way as usual. 1. You name the longest parent chain. 2. You use –ane –ene –yne for single, double, triple bonds. **You number the hydrocarbon ‘Parent Chain” so branches are on lowest carbon numbers** **Number the carbons so ALCOHOL is on the lowest number possible** 3. You add “–ol” on the end of a hydrocarbon to show an alcohol (OH) functional group is present. -C-C-C-C-C-C-C-OH HH H H H H H H H HH HH H H 7 Carbons long Hept All single bonds an Number carbons so OH on lowest number. -1- ol ***Its very common to just NOT put -1- for alcohols on the end of hydrocarbons*** Heptanol

27 Multiple Alcohols ***When there is more than 1 alcohol functional group in a hydrocarbon you describe it the same as you would if there were multiple F’s or Br’s (Halide groups).*** Diol Triol ***Make sure if you use “di” you have listed two places….1,2 or 2,5..3,4…etc**** ***Make sure if you use “tri” you have listed three places….1,2,3 or 2,2,5..3,5,5…etc****

28 H--C--C--C--C--C--H H H OH H HH H H H Practice 5 Carbons long Pent -- A DOUBLE BOND!! -1-ene Number carbons so double bond on lowest number. Alcohol groups on 2 different carbons. diol State which carbon alcohol groups are on. -2,4-

29 Alcohols Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Whether an alcohol containing hydrocarbon is considered primary, secondary, or tertiary is dependant on the Carbon that the OH group is attached to. H--C--C--C--C--C--OH H H H H HH HH H H primary alcohol The carbon that the OH group is attached to make this a primary alcohol. ONE Carbon connect to ONE other carbon makes it primary.

30 Alcohols Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Whether an alcohol containing hydrocarbon is considered primary, secondary, or tertiary is dependant on the Carbon that the OH group is attached to. H--C--C--C--C--C--H H H H H OHH HH H H secondary alcohol The carbon that the OH group is attached to make this a secondary alcohol. Carbon connect to TWO other carbon makes it secondary.

31 Alcohols Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Whether an alcohol containing hydrocarbon is considered primary, secondary, or tertiary is dependant on the Carbon that the OH group is attached to. H--C--C--C--C--C--H H H H H HOH HH H --C-- Tertiary alcohol The carbon that the OH group is attached to make this a Tertiary alcohol. Carbon connect to THREE other carbon makes it secondary. HH H

32 Alcohols Combination Practice Whether an alcohol containing hydrocarbon is considered primary, secondary, or tertiary is dependant on the Carbon that the OH group is attached to. H--C--C--C--C--C--H H H H H HOH HH H --C-- HH H Carbons long. an All SINGLE bonds. pent OH on carbon ol CH3 group (methyl) on carbon 3. 3-methyl

33 Practice Cyclo/Benzene Alcohols OH Cyclopentane-1,2-diol Or O-cyclopentane-diol OH Cyclohexane-1,3-diol Or M-cyclohexane-diol

34 Practice Cyclo/Benzene Alcohols OH Cyclopentane-1,2-diol Or O-cyclopentane-diol

35 Elimination Reactions It is often very useful to be able to create alkenes and alkynes from alkanes. This can be done in TWO ways; 1. Ethene produced from Ethane Cracking Elimination 2. Ethene produced by Ethane Elimination Reactions.

36 Ethane cracking is a special hydrocarbon cracking in which Ethane (single bonded-Saturated) is “cracked” into Ethyne (double bonded- unsaturated).

37 Elimination and Addition Reactions H--C--C--C--C--C--OH H H H H HH HH H H they UNSATURATE a hydrocarbon and produce water ***Elimination reactions are also called Dehydration reaction because they UNSATURATE a hydrocarbon and produce water as a second product.*** Pentanol H 2 SO 4 H 3 PO 4 H--C--C--C--C--C H H H H HH H H H H -- Pentene + H 2 O

38 Elimination and Addition Reactions H--C--C--C--C--C--H H H H H HH ClH H H they UNSATURATE a hydrocarbon and produce water ***Elimination reaction are also called Dehydration reaction because they UNSATURATE a hydrocarbon and produce water as a second product.*** 2- chloropentane KOH NaOH + H--C--C--C--C--C--H H H H H HH Cl - H H H 2 O Pent-2-ene

39 Elimination and Addition Reactions they SATURATE a hydrocarbon by adding water ***Addition reaction are also called hydration reactions because they SATURATE a hydrocarbon by adding water as a reactant.*** exact opposite of a hydration reaction It is the exact opposite of a hydration reaction. The double or triple bond is broken and the H and OH group are added onto the carbons to keep the 4 bonds rule. H--C--C--C--H H H H H -- Propene + HOH H--C--C--C--H H H H H H OH Propan-1-ol

40 Alcohols and Elimination Reactions Functional Group: -OH (hydroxyl group) Drop the “e” from the end of the alkane, alkene, or alkyne and add -ol If necessary add the number of the carbon the –OH group is on; eg., propan-1-ol and propan-2-ol If there are more than 1 OH you keep the whole name (KEEP THE “E”) use “di” or “tri” “ol” instead.

41 Alcohols and Elimination Reactions Preparation: ENE(hydration reaction) If you react an alkENE with water (hydration reaction) it will break the double or triple bond and add “H” and “OH”. H--C--C--C--H H H H H -- Propene + HOH Water H--C--C--C--H H H H H H OH Propan-1-ol

42 Alcohols and Elimination Reactions Elimination Reactions: (Dehydrations) The opposite of an addition (hydration) reaction. An Alcohol is unsaturated creating a double bond and H 2 O. General Formula: Alcohols  alkene + Water R-C—C-R OH H HH H 2 SO 4 H 3 PO 4 R-C = C-R HH HOH + HOH

43 Alcohols and Elimination Reactions Elimination Reactions: (Organic Halide (OH-/Basic) The reaction of hydrocarbons containing a halide (F, Cl, Br, I) with an OH- group (basic environment) General Formula: Organic Halide + OH-  Alkene + Halide ion (Cl-) + Water R-C—C-R Cl H HH R-C = C-R HH HOH + HOH Cl- + Cl- OH- + OH-

44 A functional group consisting of; a double bonded oxygen and OH groups bound to end carbon of a hydrocarbon. ***Can be attached to ANY hydrocarbon chain*** Carboxylic acid naming is done the same as a normal hydrocarbon EXCEPT at the end of the hydrocarbon name you add “–oic acid” MethaneMethanoic Acid ButaneButanoic Acid

45 A functional group consisting of a single bonded O between TWO carbons and double bonded O. Named by counting the number of carbons on the =O side and changing the ending to “–oate”. ethane ethanoateMethyl You name the second half of the ester (side without =O) like a alkane branch ending in “–yl”

46 The Ester Functional Group artificial flavours ***Esters are often added to foods for artificial flavours.***

47 Making an Ester (Esterification) carboxylic acid (COOH) reacts with an alcohol (COH condensation reaction (dehydration) ***An Ester is formed when a carboxylic acid (COOH) reacts with an alcohol (COH ) and undergoes a condensation reaction (dehydration).*** Butanoic Acid Ethanol H + OH  HOH (Water)

48 Making an Ester (Esterification) carboxylic acid (COOH) reacts with an alcohol (COH condensation reaction (dehydration) ***An Ester is formed when a carboxylic acid (COOH) reacts with an alcohol (COH ) and undergoes a condensation reaction (dehydration).***  butanoate Ethyl + H 2 O

49 Ester Formation Summary CH 3 -C-OH = O + HO-CH 3  HOH CH 3 -C- + O-CH 3 CH 3 -C- = O O-CH 3 ethanoateMethyl

50 Esterification and Benzene Rings ***Esterification when benzene rings have the required carboxylic acid and hydroxyl groups.***

51 Esterification and Benzene Rings ***Esterification when benzene rings have the required carboxylic acid and hydroxyl groups.***

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54 single unit monomers longer chains called polymers The common plastics around you are formed from single unit monomers linked together into longer chains called polymers. Polymer Monomer MonomerMonomer Addition polymers from alkene **Addition polymers form from alkene or alkyne monomers.**

55 Example 1: Polypropene (Propylene) Propene monomer “sub” units Again the joining of the monomers breaks the double bonds and connects the monomers together. General Formula

56 Example 2: Polyvinyl Chloride Viny chloride monomer “sub” units Again the joining of the monomers breaks the double bonds and connects the monomers together. General Formula

57 Example 3: Polystyrene Styrene monomer “sub” units Again the joining of the monomers breaks the double bonds and connects the monomers together. General Formula (Styrofoam)

58 Example 4: Teflon tetrafluoroethene monomer “sub” units Again the joining of the monomers breaks the double bonds and connects the monomers together. General Formula

59 BOTH polymers formed from monomer “sub” units. Condensation polymers are made in a similar way to addition polymers as BOTH polymers are formed from monomer “sub” units. ***BUT, in condensation polymers the “sub” unit are alternating “double ended” carboxylic acids and alcohols forming “ester” linkages.*** OH-C-CH 2 -CH 2 -C-OH = O = O Butane-1,4-dicarboxylic acid + OH-CH 2 -CH 2 -OH Ethane-1,2-diol ***Just like in esterification, an HOH is removed when they join together***

60 OH-C-CH 2 -CH 2 -C-OH = O = O Butan-1,4-dicarboxylic acid + OH-CH 2 -CH 2 -OH Ethan-1,2-diol HOH OH-C-CH 2 -CH 2 -C-O -CH 2 -CH 2 -OH O = -C-CH 2 -CH 2 -C-O -CH 2 -CH 2 -O- n + HOH ***You ARE NOT expected to be able to name this*** General Formula O =

61 Example 1: Lipids + 3 Fatty Acids + 3 HOH

62 Example 1: Polyester (Synthetic Lipids) OH-C-CH 2 -CH 2 -C-OH O = O = Butane-1,4-dicarboxylic acid + OH-CH 2 -CH 2 -OH Ethane-1,2-diol → -OH-C-CH 2 -CH 2 -C-O- O = O = CH 2 -CH 2 - n + HOH

63 Example 2: Protein Synthesis( P + P = Amino) N-CH 2 -C-OH O = (Acids) H H Glycine (Amino Acid) No need to memorize + N-CH-C-OH H H CH 3 O = Alanine (Amino Acid) → -N-CH 2 -C-O- O = H N-CH-C-O- HCH 3 O = Protein Segment + HOH Water n n **The bond between two amino acids is called a PEPTIDE bond**

64 Example 2: Nylon( Synthetic Amino Acids) COOH NH 2 The same as peptide bonding, EXCEPT no Amino Acids, just alternating “double ended” COOH (carboxylic acid) subunits and “double ended” NH 2 (Nitryl) subunits”. COOH “Double Ended” COOH NH 2 “Double Ended” NH 2 → + HOH Water n n **The bond between two Nylon molecules is called a AMIDE bond**

65 Example 2: Kevlar( Synthetic Amino Acids) COOH NH 2 AND THERE IS HYDROGEN BONDING BETWEEN POLYMER CHAINS The same as peptide bonding, EXCEPT no Amino Acids, just alternating “double ended” COOH (carboxylic acid) subunits and “double ended” NH 2 (Nitryl) subunits”. AND THERE IS HYDROGEN BONDING BETWEEN POLYMER CHAINS! OH-C- O = -C-OH O = COOH “Double Ended” COOH + N-N-N-N- -N-N-N-N H H H H NH 2 “Double Ended” NH 2 → -C- O = -C- O = N-N-N-N- -N--N--N--N- HH + HOH n n

66 Example 2: Kevlar( Synthetic Amino Acids) -C- O = -C- O = N-N-N-N- -N-N-N-N HH -C- O = -C- O = N-N-N-N- -N-N-N-N HH -C- O = -C- O = N-N-N-N- -N-N-N-N HH -C- O = -C- O = N-N-N-N- -N-N-N-N HH ****When multiple polymers line up they hydrogen bond to each other making the polymer even stronger.***

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