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Organic Review. organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon hydrocarbon.

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Presentation on theme: "Organic Review. organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon hydrocarbon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organic Review

2 organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon hydrocarbon

3 Which type of hydrocarbons are saturated Single bonded hydrocarbons

4 Which types of hydrocarbons are unsaturated Double or triple bonded carbons

5 Which are more reactive chemically, saturated hydrocarbons of unsaturated hydrocarbons? unsaturated

6 What is the standard formula of a alkane C n H 2n+2

7 What is the standard formula of a alkene C n H 2n

8 What is the standard formula of a alkyne C n H 2n-2

9 What is the ending for a double bonded hydrocarbon? ene

10 What is the ending for a single bonded hydrocarbon? ane

11 What is the ending for a triple bonded hydrocarbon? yne

12 What is the ending for a carboxylic acid? Anoic acid

13 What is the ending for a ketone one

14 What is the ending for an aldehyde? al

15 What is the ending for a ether oxy

16 What is the ending for an ester anoate

17 What is the ending for an alcohol ol

18 What is the beginning for a 7 carbon chain? hept

19 What is the beginning for a 9 carbon chain? non

20 What is the beginning for a 3 carbon chain? prop

21 What is the beginning for a 4 carbon chain? but

22 What is the beginning for a 5 carbon chain? pent

23 What is the beginning for a 2 carbon chain? eth

24 What is the beginning for a 6 carbon chain? hex

25 What is the beginning for a 1 carbon chain? meth

26 What is the beginning for a 8 carbon chain? oct

27 What is the ending for a carboxylic acid? Anoic acid

28 What is the ending for a alcohol? ol

29 What type of reaction will unsaturated hydrocarbons undergo that saturated hydrocarbons will not? Addition reactions

30 . Write a complete balanced equation for the following addition reaction + Cl 2 

31 .What type of chemical reaction do all hydrocarbons undergo combustion

32 Write the balanced chemical equation for the complete combustion of ethane

33 Write a complete balanced equation for the following addition reaction + 2 Br 2 

34 How does the length of the carbon chain effect the melting points and boiling points of hydrocarbons? The longer the carbon chain the higher the melting and boiling points.

35 Which of the following would you expect to have the highest boiling point? (1) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 (2) CH 4 (3) CH 3 CH 3 (1) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3

36 Are hydrocarbons soluble in water? Why or why not? They are not soluble in water as they are non-polar.

37 What are isomers? Isomers have the same molecular formula but different molecular structure. The double or triple bond will be in a different location

38 Which of the following pairs represents pairs of isomers?

39 Classify each of the following as an alkane, an alkene or an alkyne - propane alkane

40 Classify each of the following as an alkane, an alkene or an alkyne - alkene

41 Classify each of the following as an alkane, an alkene or an alkyne - ethyne alkyne

42 Classify each of the following as an alkane, an alkene or an alkyne - alkyne

43 Name the following nonyne

44 Name the following - ethene

45 Name the following - 2 butyne

46 Draw the structural formula and give the molecular formula - butane

47 Draw the structural formula and give the molecular formula - 1 – hexene

48 Draw the structural formula and give the molecular formula - 2 – pentyne

49 Draw the structural formula and give the molecular formula - ethyne

50 Draw the structural formula and give the molecular formula - 4- nonene

51 Why is no number used in the names “ethene” and “propene”? There is only one place you can put the double bond for both molecules.

52 Why is the name 3 - pentyne incorrect? It would be 2 pentyne as you always have to name using the smallest hydrocarbon chain.

53 Describe and explain the relationship between the sizes of hydrocarbon molecules and their boiling points. The longer the hydrocarbon molecule the higher the melting and boiling point.

54 is a method used to separate the components of petroleum It involves the process of distillation, making use of the differences in boiling points of the different hydrocarbons. fractional distillation

55 To make fuels better for internal combustion engines straight chain hydrocarbons are broken down into shorter branched chain hydrocarbons process of cracking

56 a particular combination of atoms that contributes to the physical and chemical characteristics of a substance functional group

57 What type of functional group does an alcohol contain OH (hydroxyl) group

58 Give the physical properties of alcohols polar higher melting and boiling points the alkanes of similar chain length longer the carbon chain is the higher the boiling point will be

59 Write the equation for the complete combustion of methanol. 2CH 3 OH + 3O 2 ===> 2CO 2 + 4H 2 O

60 Name the - CH 3 CH 2 OH ethanol

61 Name - CH 3 CH 2 CH(OH)CH butenol

62 Name - CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH(OH) CH 2 CH 2 CH heptanol

63 Draw the structural formula for - 1 – propanol

64 Draw the structural formula for - ethanol

65 Draw the structural formula for –, 1 - hexanol

66 What type of functional group does an ether contain? R – O - R

67 . Explain why methanol has a higher melting point than methane. It contains an hydroxyl so is polar and forms hydrogen bonds and will therefore take more energy to split the bonds thus causing an higher melting point.

68 Arrange the following compounds in order of increasing boiling point. 1 – pentanol, decane, 1 – decanol, pentane Pentane, 1-pentanol,decane, decanol

69 Consider the following two compounds: CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH and CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3. Which is an ether and which is an alcohol CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH – alcohol CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3. - ether

70 Which will evaporate at the lower temperature CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH or CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3. - ether

71 Which has the higher solubility in a polar solvent - CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH or CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH – alcohol

72 What type of functional group does a carboxylic acid have? COOH

73 What type of chemical reaction is common for carboxylic acids Esterfication and neutralization reactions.

74 What is the functional group for an ester?

75 What are the products and the reactants in an esterification reaction? Alcohols + Carboxylic acid --  ester

76 . What is the most distinctive property of esters? The have a very strong odor.

77 What are esters commonly used for? Cleaning solutions

78 What is a hydrolysis reaction? Using water to break down a compounds into smaller parts.

79 What is the functional group for ketones

80 What is the functional group for aldehydes

81 Draw the structure of butanal.

82 Draw the structure for 2- pentanone.

83 What is a plastic? synthetic (man made) polymer

84 What are large molecules that are formed by linking many small molecules together called: polymer

85 A molecule that is able to bond in long chains. monomer

86 What is the difference between an addition polymer and a condensation polymer? Give an example of each addition polymers the monomers will contain one or more multiple bonds that can undergo addition reactions. condensation reaction water is a product

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