Presentation on theme: " The study of Carbon. Carbon is in all living things. Carbon is an extremely versatile elements and can bond with other carbon atom to make chains,"— Presentation transcript:
The study of Carbon. Carbon is in all living things. Carbon is an extremely versatile elements and can bond with other carbon atom to make chains, rings, and vast networks creating countless numbers of compounds.
A Lewis dot structure displays carbon having only 2 unpaired electrons in its ground state. When Carbon bonds however, the paired electron can split apart and occupy separate orbitals, allowing carbon to form four covalent bonds. Carbon in its ground state Carbon in its bonded state
Carbon can share its four unpaired electrons to make multiple covalent bonds when forming a chain. Covalent Bond = bond formed by the sharing of electrons between two atoms. Single Covalent Bonds – sharing of one pair of electrons between two carbon atoms. Represented by a single line. Double Covalent Bonds – sharing of two pairs of electrons. Represented by a double line. Triple Covalent Bonds – sharing of three pairs of electrons. Represented by a triple line.
Carbon is able to form many different compounds due to its unique bonding capabilities.
Due to the nature of covalent bonds organics generally possess the following properties. Low Melting Points Low Boiling Points Poor Conductors of Electricity Non-Electrolytes Poor conductors of Heat Non-polar “Like Dissolves like” Slow Reaction Rates. Organic compounds that contain only single bonds are called Saturated. Organic compounds with one or more double or triple bonds are called Unsaturated.
Attempt to display the what the organic compound looks like. Number of atoms Identity of atoms Bonds General Shape Example: Molecular Formula C 3 H 8 Structural Formula Condensed Formula; CH 3 CH 2 CH 3
A homologous series of compounds that contain only hydrogen and carbon. Homologous Series – a group of related compounds in which each member differs from the one before it by the same additional unit. Form the backbone of most organic substances. Categorized by the covalent bonds they possess. Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes
Hydrocarbon series that possess only single covalent bonds between carbons. Tend to release energy when burned. Examples: Homologous series (CH 2 ) Suffix: -ane General Formula: C n H 2n+2 MethaneEthane Propane
Hydrocarbon series where at least one double covalent bond is present between two carbons. Used to make organic substances such as polypropyene. Examples: Homologous Series (CH 2 ) Suffix: -ene General Formula C n H 2n Ethene Propene Butene
Hydrocarbon series where at least one triple covalent bond is present between two carbons. Used in welding. Examples: Homologous Series (CH 2 ) Suffix: -yne General Formula C n H 2n-2 EthynePropyne Butyne
Compounds that possess the same molecular formula but have more than one structural formula. Example: C 4 H 10 Despite having the same structural formula, isomer will exhibit very different chemical and physical properties. The number of possible isomers increases as the number of carbon atoms increases. Butane Methyl Propane
1. Find the longest carbon chain which contains the functional group or multiple bond if present and name it (using the correct ending). 2. Number the longest chain (left to right or right to left) so that the functional group/multiple bond/longest side chain (branch) is on the lowest numbered carbon possible. 3. Name each side group but change the ending to -yl. (Alkyl groups) 4. Use a prefix di-, tri-, tetra-, etc. to denote how many side groups of each length are present. 5. Before naming the side group give the number of the carbon to which the side group is attached. 6. Arrange the side groups in alphabetical order ignoring the prefixes di-,tri-, etc.
1. Find the longest carbon chain which contains the functional group or multiple bond if present and name it (using the correct ending).
2. Number the longest chain (left to right or right to left) so that the multiple bond/functional group/longest side chain (branch) is on the lowest numbered carbon possible. The number of carbons determines the name of the parent chain. 6 carbons = hex = hexene
3. Name each side group but change the ending to -yl. (Alkyl groups) 1 Carbon = methane, side group(alkyl group) = methyl
4. Use a prefix di-, tri-, tetra-, etc. to denote how many side groups of each length are present. Only 1 methyl side group present.
5. Before naming the side group give the number of the carbon to which the side group is attached. 2-methyl
6. Arrange the side groups in alphabetical order ignoring the prefixes di-,tri-, etc. 2-methyl hexene Condensed Formula: CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH(CH 3 )CH 3
Atoms or groups of atoms that attach to hydrocarbon chains. Create whole new compounds each with their own distinct chemical and physical properties. Halides Alcohols Adehydes Ketones Ethers Organic Acids (COOH) Amines Amino Acids Amides
One of the Halogens (Group 17) is attached to the hydrocarbon chain, replacing a hydrogen. Organic Halide(Halocarbon) Halides are named for the halogen present on the hydrocarbon chain with a number designating which carbon it is on. F = flouro, Cl = chloro, Br = bromo, I = iodo Chloromethane CH 3 Cl 2,2,3-tricholorbutane CH 3 CCl 2 CCHClCH 3
Compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms on a hydrocarbon chain are replaced by an –OH group (Hydroxyl Group). Does not form OH- ions in water. Alcohols are non-electrolytes. Alcohols are polar and are soluble in polar solvents such as water. Suffix: -ol Classification of alcohols Primary Secondary Tertiary
Primary Alcohol – has the hydroxyl group(OH) attached to a primary carbon at the end of the chain. Represented by R-OH or R-CH 2 OH 1-butanol
Secondary alcohol – has a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to a secondary carbon. Represented by R-CH(OH)-R’ 2-butanol
Tertiary Alcohols – have a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to a tertiary carbon atom. Represented by R 1 R 2 R 3 COH 2-methy, 2-propanol
Some organic compounds contain more than on hydroxyl group. Monohydroxy – an alcohol with one –OH group. Suffix; -ol Dihydroxy – an alcohol with two -OH groups. Suffix; -diol Trihydroxy – an alcohol with three –OH groups. Suffix; -triol 1,2-ethanediol 1,2,3-propanetriol
Hydrocarbons that contain a carbonyl group (-C=O) on a primary (end) carbon. Suffix; -al MethanalPropanal
Hydrocarbons that contain a carbonyl group (-C=O) on a secondary carbon (a carbon that is attached to two other carbons). Suffix; -one Propanone
Two carbons chains joined together by an oxygen atom between them. R-O-R’ Suffix; -yl ether dimethyl etherethylmethyl ether
Hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl (-COOH) group attached. R-COOH Suffix; -oic acid methanoic Acidethanoic Acid
Organic compounds with a generalized formula of; R-CO-OR’ (where R’ is an alcohol and R is an acid) Suffix; -yl (alcohol part) -oate (acid part) Ethyl ethanoate
Derivatives of ammonia. Alkyl groups attach to the Nitrogen in place of a hydrogen on the ammonia (NH 3 ) molecule. suffix; -amine pent-2-amine
Contain a carboxyl group as well as an amine group. Building blocks of proteins. 10 essential amino acids. Alanine
Compound formed by the combination of two amino acids during a condensation reaction.
1. Combustion Reactions Hydrocarbons burn in the presence of sufficient oxygen to produce water and carbon dioxide. C 3 H 8(g) + 5O 2(g) 3CO 2(g) + 4H 2 O (g) Complete Combustion If there is not enough oxygen present water and carbon monoxide (CO) will be produced instead. 2C 3 H 8(g) + 7O 2(g) 6CO 2(g) + 8H 2 O (g) Incomplete Combustion
2. Substitution Involves the replacement of one or more hydrogens in saturated hydrocarbon with another atom or group. C 2 H 6 + Cl 2 C 2 H 5 Cl + HCl 3. Addition Involve adding one or atoms at a double or triple bond. C 2 H 4 + Cl 2 C 2 H 4 Cl 2 Unsaturated hydrocarbons can also react with hydrogen by addition reactions producing a saturated hydrocarbon. C 2 H 4 + H 2 C 2 H 6
4. Esterification Reaction between an organic acid and an alcohol to produce an ester plus water. ethanoic Acid ethanolethyl ethanoate water
5. Saponification an ester reacts with an inorganic base to produce an alcohol and soap.
6. Fermentation Six Carbon chains of sugar are broken down into carbon dioxide and two carbon fragments of alcohol. C 6 H 12 O 6 2C 2 H 5 OH + 2CO 2 7. Polymerization Polymers – long hydrocarbon chains made up of smaller covalently bonded chains called monomers. Ex: proteins, starches, cellulose, synthetic plastics a. Addition Polymerization – the joining of monomers of unsaturated compounds. 4C 2 H 2 (C 2 H 2 ) 4 nC 2 H 2 (C 2 H 2 ) n b. Condensation Polymerization – removal of water from hydroxyl groups and the joining of monomers by an ether or ester linkage.