Presentation on theme: "Organic Chemistry The study of carbon-containing compounds and their properties. The vast majority of organic compounds contain chains of rings of carbon."— Presentation transcript:
Organic Chemistry The study of carbon-containing compounds and their properties. The vast majority of organic compounds contain chains of rings of carbon atoms.
Hydrocarbons... compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen. Saturated: carbon-carbon bonds are all single - alkanes [C n H 2n+2 ]
Rules for Naming Alkanes 1. For alkanes beyond butane, add -ane to the Greek root for the number of carbons. C-C-C-C-C-C = hexane 2.Alkyl substituents: drop the -ane and add -yl. -C 2 H 5 is ethyl
Rules for Naming Alkanes 3. Positions of substituent groups are specified by numbering the longest chain sequentially. C C-C-C-C-C-C 3-methylhexane 4. Location and name are followed by root alkane name. Substituents in alphabetical order and use di-, tri-, etc.
Substitution Reactions Primarily where halogen atoms replace hydrogen atoms.
Cyclic Alkanes Carbon atoms can form rings containing only carbon-carbon single bonds. C 3 H 6, C 4 H 8, C 6 H 12
Alkenes and Alkynes Alkenes: hydrocarbons that contain a carbon- carbon double bond. [C n H 2n ] C C=C propene Alkynes: hydrocarbons containing a carbon- carbon triple bond. C C C C C 2-pentyne
Nomenclature for Alkenes 1. Root hydrocarbon name ends in -ene C 2 H 4 is ethene 2. With more than 3 carbons, double bond is indicated by the lowest numbered carbon atom in the bond. C=C C C is 1-butene
Addition Reactions...in which (weaker) bonds are broken and new (stronger) bonds are formed to atoms being added.
Aromatic Hydrocarbons A special class of cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons. + Cl 2 + HCl benzeneChlorobenzene
Refinery Processes Cracking: large molecules broken down to smaller ones by breaking carbon-carbon bonds. Pyrolysis (thermal cracking): The process that produces cracking at high temperatures. Catalytic Cracking: Cracking at lower temperatures. Catalytic reforming: Alkanes and cycloalkanes converted to aromatic compounds.
The Common Functional Groups ClassGeneral Formula HalohydrocarbonsR X AlcoholsR OH EthersR O R Aldehydes
The Common Functional Groups ClassGeneral Formula Ketones Carboxylic Acids Esters AminesR NH 2
Polymers...are large, usually chainlike molecules that are built from small molecules called monomers. MonomerPolymer EthylenePolyethylene Vinyl chloridePolyvinyl chloride TetrafluoroethyleneTeflon
Types of Polymerization Addition Polymerization: monomers “add together” to form the polymer, with no other products. (Teflon) Condensation Polymerization: A small molecule, such as water, is formed for each extension of the polymer chain. (Nylon)