2Monomers, Polymers, and Macromolecules Macromolecules: groups of polymers covalently bonded – 4 classes of organic macromolecules to be studied:1. Carbohydrates 3. Proteins2. Lipids 4. Nucleic AcidsMonomers: repeating units that serve as building blocks for polymersPolymers: long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds
3How do the monomers link up or break back into monomers? Condensation reaction (specifically, dehydration synthesis)two molecules covalently bond lose a water molecule in the process(THIS TAKES ENERGY TO DO!!!)Hydrolysispolymers are disassembled to monomers by adding a water molecule back(ex. Digestion of food)
4Organic Compounds and Building Blocks Carbohydrates – made up of linked monosaccharidesLipids -- CATEGORY DOES NOT INCLUDE POLYMERS (grouping based on insolubility)*Triglycerides (glycerol and 3 fatty acids)*Phospholipids*SteroidsProteins – made up of amino acidsNucleic Acids – made up nucleotides
6Carbohydrates – fuel and building material Exist as three types:1. monosaccharides (mono = 1)(Simple Sugars)2. disaccharides (di = 2) (double sugars)3. polysaccharides (poly = many) (complex sugarsMade up of C, H, and ONames end in –oseSize of “carbon skeleton” determines category
7Monosaccharides Are major sources of energy for cells Ex. Glucose made during photosynthesis (cellular respiration converts glucose to energy for our bodies)Most common: glucose, fructose, galactose
8Figure 5.3 The structure and classification of some monosaccharides
9Glucose, Fructose, Galactose Glucose: *made during photosynthesis*main source of energy for plants and animalsFructose: *found naturally in fruits*sweetest of monosaccharidesGalactose: *found in milk*is usually in association with glucose or fructose
10DiaccharideDisaccharide – two monosaccharides bonded together with the release of water. (double sugar)Ex: table sugar (Sucrose)and lactose (sugar in milk)These must be broken down by the enzymes in our stomach to be utilized by the body.
12PolysaccharidePolysaccharide – many monomers bonded together (12 or more)complex carbohydrate – the best type to eatEx: Glycogen (plant starches, storage form of glucose)Starch (pasta, bread)Cellulose (Plant fiber which is good for you digestion – our bodies can’t break it down so it just passes through to help cleanse the colon.)
14Chemical Identification of Carbohydrates Benedict’s Test: Identifies the presence of a MONOSACCHARIDE by changing from blue to orange in the presence of heatIodine Test : Identifies the presence of a POLYSACCHARIDE by changing from yellow to purple/blackProcess of Elimination: If there is no reaction with either the Benedict’s or Iodine Tests, then a DISACCHARIDE is present.