2 Monomers, Polymers, and Macromolecules Macromolecules: groups of polymers covalently bonded – 4 classes of organic macromolecules to be studied:1. Carbohydrates 3. Proteins2. Lipids 4. Nucleic AcidsMonomers: repeating units that serve as building blocks for polymersPolymers: long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds
3 How do the monomers link up or break back into monomers? Condensation reaction (specifically, dehydration synthesis)two molecules covalently bond lose a water molecule in the process(THIS TAKES ENERGY TO DO!!!)Hydrolysispolymers are disassembled to monomers by adding a water molecule back(ex. Digestion of food)
4 Organic Compounds and Building Blocks Carbohydrates – made up of linked monosaccharidesLipids -- CATEGORY DOES NOT INCLUDE POLYMERS (grouping based on insolubility)*Triglycerides (glycerol and 3 fatty acids)*Phospholipids*SteroidsProteins – made up of amino acidsNucleic Acids – made up nucleotides
6 Carbohydrates – fuel and building material Exist as three types:1. monosaccharides (mono = 1)(Simple Sugars)2. disaccharides (di = 2) (double sugars)3. polysaccharides (poly = many) (complex sugarsMade up of C, H, and ONames end in –oseSize of “carbon skeleton” determines category
7 Monosaccharides Are major sources of energy for cells Ex. Glucose made during photosynthesis (cellular respiration converts glucose to energy for our bodies)Most common: glucose, fructose, galactose
8 Figure 5.3 The structure and classification of some monosaccharides
9 Glucose, Fructose, Galactose Glucose: *made during photosynthesis*main source of energy for plants and animalsFructose: *found naturally in fruits*sweetest of monosaccharidesGalactose: *found in milk*is usually in association with glucose or fructose
10 DiaccharideDisaccharide – two monosaccharides bonded together with the release of water. (double sugar)Ex: table sugar (Sucrose)and lactose (sugar in milk)These must be broken down by the enzymes in our stomach to be utilized by the body.
12 PolysaccharidePolysaccharide – many monomers bonded together (12 or more)complex carbohydrate – the best type to eatEx: Glycogen (plant starches, storage form of glucose)Starch (pasta, bread)Cellulose (Plant fiber which is good for you digestion – our bodies can’t break it down so it just passes through to help cleanse the colon.)
14 Chemical Identification of Carbohydrates Benedict’s Test: Identifies the presence of a MONOSACCHARIDE by changing from blue to orange in the presence of heatIodine Test : Identifies the presence of a POLYSACCHARIDE by changing from yellow to purple/blackProcess of Elimination: If there is no reaction with either the Benedict’s or Iodine Tests, then a DISACCHARIDE is present.