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The Red River Resistance

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1 The Red River Resistance

2 What was the Red River Resistance?
In 1869, the people of the Red River began to resist a plan of the Hudson’s Bay Company, Britain and Canada to transfer their region to Canada without consulting them. Brainstorm 3 possible upcoming problems this action will have

3 Opening Question What makes Canada unique and great?

4 The Agreement Canada had concluded an agreement with the HBC and Britain to take possession of Rupert’s Land and British-claimed territories in the northwest and paid the HBC about $1.5 million The Métis people wanted a say in their future, but Canada intended to make their settlement part of a territory in which they would have little say

5 The Triggers That winter, the Red River settlement face many stresses:
Crops had failed Buffalo were declining Canada were making plans for Rupert’s Land and the northwest as if nobody lived there

6 Surveyors would go right through Métis farms as if they didn’t exist
Canadian surveyors were measuring the land into sections for settlement – settlement that would push the fur trade, and the Métis way of life, off the land. Surveyors would go right through Métis farms as if they didn’t exist Put yourself in the shoes of a Métis farmer, what feelings would be running through your head, and what actions would you have taken to defend your land? What are the consequences of these actions (both from the farmer and surveyor)?

7 Enter the Contender: Louis Riel
Louis Riel stopped the surveyors from crossing his cousin’s farm The next month they set up a blockade to stop the lieutenant-governor, William McDougall from coming into Rupert’s Land With the Métis he took control of Fort Garry, a major HBC trading post and did it without a shot fired

8 The Provisional Government
This is a temporary government which is formed because no other authority can establish legitimate control The Métis issued the Declaration of the People of Rupert’s Land and the Northwest They chose Riel as president of this government

9 The Declaration The declaration summarized the following points:
That they were abandoned by the HBC (its trading partner), and therefore is free from the HBC They refuse to recognize the authority of Canada They have every right to defend themselves from being slaves of Canada and will continue to do so The provisional government will be the only voice the people of Rupert’s Land and northwest will listen to, not the Canadian government They are ready to enter negotiations with the Canadian government, with goal of ensuring the safety and health of the Métis people

10 History Happens pg. 279 From this article, what pressures were applied to the Prime Minister? Why are the Canadiens so interested in the movement out west? If you were the Prime Minister, who would you support and why? Why would the Americans want to “lend a hand” in this situation?

11 What made Riel a leader? His mother was a Canadienne
He studied at the College de Montreal and stood out in his community as one who could speak English, French and Cree He understood that Confederation could give the settlement an elected government with control over local affairs and could establish rights for these people

12 Meeting Louis Riel pg Make a T-chart to record all negative and positive opinions made towards Riel What parts of these meetings seem factual or fictional

13 Assignment: Our Media Find 4 pieces of media that show bias, facts, or fictional content Analyze how this information affects the viewer of the media Think about a product you have been influenced in buying because of the media, how did you justify your decision to get it?

14 Death of Thomas Scott After the Métis took over Fort Garry, a group of British Protestant people believed they should have power over other people and dismissed the equality for the Métis or Canadiens The Red River government arrested some of these people and it convicted and shot one of them, Thomas Scott Riel, being president could have stopped the execution but chose not to Some considered it justifiable, others considered it inexcusable

15 Scott acted on all occasions as a fanatic, and it was necessary to give an example of severity and firmness. The people of Ontario are using this execution to raise prejudice and hatred, not only against the Métis, but against all that is French and Catholic. I believe impartial people grant that Riel and his government were perfectly right to act as they have. The government at Red River is the only government here, and it has been established and recognized by elected representatives. - Louis Schmidt, a member of the Red River Government

16 Questions: Thomas Scott
What are the two ways this death could be viewed as? How do you think the people of Canada would react to this execution? Why was this justified for the Métis?

17 The Manitoba Act, 1870 Negotiated by the government of Canada and the provisional government at Red River - The Province of Manitoba joined the Confederation Acknowledged First Nations right to the land Recognized Metis right to the land Did not suggest a process for negotiating with FN Did not specify any particular tract of land for Metis Committed public funding for Protestant & Catholic schools Made Manitoba bilingual - Did not give Manitoba control over public lands - Gave people of Manitoba right to elect provincial government & representatives to federal government Made Manitoba small “Qualified voters” as permanent residents only, so many Metis could not vote bcs they spent time outside of province for buffalo hunting


19 Second Metis Uprising Many Metis people had left the Red River settlement soon after the Resistance and established communities in the west along the Saskatchewan River Established farms, worked in the fur trade, annual buffalo hunts Since Canada officially controlled the West, it set up the North West Mounted police force and planned to build a railway across the west to BC The Metis at South Branch wanted recognition for their settlements so they sent petitions to the federal government in the early 1870’s Government did not respond, instead the Prince Albert Colonization Company was granted land including the settlements at the South Branch Due to the completion of the railway, the Canadian government ignored the Metis, and the FN (Blackfoot Confederacy & Cree)

20 At Batoche, the Metis leaders formed a provisional government
The Metis asked Riel for help, so he left Montana & came to the South Branch communities Urged the Metis, FN & Anglophones to work together At Batoche, the Metis leaders formed a provisional government Canada sent six hundred troops to the region Battle of Batoche (3 days) approx 100 Metis & Canadian soldiers killed Riel gave himself up, and was excuted. WHY? The Cree leaders gave themselves up and were imprisioned RESULTS: Canadian government restricted the movement of FN by making them obtain a pass before leaving reserves Many Metis left and moved west into Alberta

21 Manitoba School Act, 1890 The Manitoba Act had established separate school for Catholic & Protestant each funded by the government 1890: government of Manitoba abolished separate schools and made English the only official language of the government. WHY? Demographic change: In 1870’s, more than 50% of population was Catholic & French . By 1890, less than 15% were Catholic & French because the Canadian government was encouraging Protestant & English immigrants to settle in the West

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