2 What was the Red River Resistance? In 1869, the people of the Red River began to resist a plan of the Hudson’s Bay Company, Britain and Canada to transfer their region to Canada without consulting them.Brainstorm 3 possible upcoming problems this action will have
3 Opening QuestionWhat makes Canada unique and great?
4 The AgreementCanada had concluded an agreement with the HBC and Britain to take possession of Rupert’s Land and British-claimed territories in the northwest and paid the HBC about $1.5 millionThe Métis people wanted a say in their future, but Canada intended to make their settlement part of a territory in which they would have little say
5 The Triggers That winter, the Red River settlement face many stresses: Crops had failedBuffalo were decliningCanada were making plans for Rupert’s Land and the northwest as if nobody lived there
6 Surveyors would go right through Métis farms as if they didn’t exist Canadian surveyors were measuring the land into sections for settlement – settlement that would push the fur trade, and the Métis way of life, off the land.Surveyors would go right through Métis farms as if they didn’t existPut yourself in the shoes of a Métis farmer, what feelings would be running through your head, and what actions would you have taken to defend your land? What are the consequences of these actions (both from the farmer and surveyor)?
7 Enter the Contender: Louis Riel Louis Riel stopped the surveyors from crossing his cousin’s farmThe next month they set up a blockade to stop the lieutenant-governor, William McDougall from coming into Rupert’s LandWith the Métis he took control of Fort Garry, a major HBC trading post and did it without a shot fired
8 The Provisional Government This is a temporary government which is formed because no other authority can establish legitimate controlThe Métis issued the Declaration of the People of Rupert’s Land and the NorthwestThey chose Riel as president of this government
9 The Declaration The declaration summarized the following points: That they were abandoned by the HBC (its trading partner), and therefore is free from the HBCThey refuse to recognize the authority of CanadaThey have every right to defend themselves from being slaves of Canada and will continue to do soThe provisional government will be the only voice the people of Rupert’s Land and northwest will listen to, not the Canadian governmentThey are ready to enter negotiations with the Canadian government, with goal of ensuring the safety and health of the Métis people
10 History Happens pg. 279From this article, what pressures were applied to the Prime Minister?Why are the Canadiens so interested in the movement out west?If you were the Prime Minister, who would you support and why?Why would the Americans want to “lend a hand” in this situation?
11 What made Riel a leader? His mother was a Canadienne He studied at the College de Montreal and stood out in his community as one who could speak English, French and CreeHe understood that Confederation could give the settlement an elected government with control over local affairs and could establish rights for these people
12 Meeting Louis Riel pgMake a T-chart to record all negative and positive opinions made towards RielWhat parts of these meetings seem factual or fictional
13 Assignment: Our MediaFind 4 pieces of media that show bias, facts, or fictional contentAnalyze how this information affects the viewer of the mediaThink about a product you have been influenced in buying because of the media, how did you justify your decision to get it?
14 Death of Thomas ScottAfter the Métis took over Fort Garry, a group of British Protestant people believed they should have power over other people and dismissed the equality for the Métis or CanadiensThe Red River government arrested some of these people and it convicted and shot one of them, Thomas ScottRiel, being president could have stopped the execution but chose not toSome considered it justifiable, others considered it inexcusable
15 Scott acted on all occasions as a fanatic, and it was necessary to give an example of severity and firmness. The people of Ontario are using this execution to raise prejudice and hatred, not only against the Métis, but against all that is French and Catholic. I believe impartial people grant that Riel and his government were perfectly right to act as they have. The government at Red River is the only government here, and it has been established and recognized by elected representatives.- Louis Schmidt, a member of the Red River Government
16 Questions: Thomas Scott What are the two ways this death could be viewed as?How do you think the people of Canada would react to this execution?Why was this justified for the Métis?
17 The Manitoba Act, 1870Negotiated by the government of Canada and the provisional government at Red River - The Province of Manitoba joined the ConfederationAcknowledged First Nations right to the landRecognized Metis right to the landDid not suggest a process for negotiating with FNDid not specify any particular tract of land for MetisCommitted public funding for Protestant & Catholic schoolsMade Manitoba bilingual- Did not give Manitoba control over public lands- Gave people of Manitoba right to elect provincial government & representatives to federal governmentMade Manitoba small“Qualified voters” as permanent residents only, so many Metis could not vote bcs they spent time outside of province for buffalo hunting
19 Second Metis UprisingMany Metis people had left the Red River settlement soon after the Resistance and established communities in the west along the Saskatchewan RiverEstablished farms, worked in the fur trade, annual buffalo huntsSince Canada officially controlled the West, it set up the North West Mounted police force and planned to build a railway across the west to BCThe Metis at South Branch wanted recognition for their settlements so they sent petitions to the federal government in the early 1870’sGovernment did not respond, instead the Prince Albert Colonization Company was granted land including the settlements at the South BranchDue to the completion of the railway, the Canadian government ignored the Metis, and the FN (Blackfoot Confederacy & Cree)
20 At Batoche, the Metis leaders formed a provisional government The Metis asked Riel for help, so he left Montana & came to the South Branch communitiesUrged the Metis, FN & Anglophones to work togetherAt Batoche, the Metis leaders formed a provisional governmentCanada sent six hundred troops to the regionBattle of Batoche (3 days) approx 100 Metis & Canadian soldiers killedRiel gave himself up, and was excuted. WHY?The Cree leaders gave themselves up and were imprisionedRESULTS:Canadian government restricted the movement of FN by making them obtain a pass before leaving reservesMany Metis left and moved west into Alberta
21 Manitoba School Act, 1890The Manitoba Act had established separate school for Catholic & Protestant each funded by the government1890: government of Manitoba abolished separate schools and made English the only official language of the government. WHY?Demographic change: In 1870’s, more than 50% of population was Catholic & French . By 1890, less than 15% were Catholic & French because the Canadian government was encouraging Protestant & English immigrants to settle in the West