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Final Exam (S2) Environmental Science

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1 Final Exam (S2) Environmental Science
Ms. Phillips

2 Which of the following is NOT one of the main areas of Earth science?
astrology geology oceanography astronomy none of the above astrology

3 The area of Earth science that examines the physical and biological changes that have occurred in Earth’s past is called ____. meteorology oceanography physical geology historical geology meteorites Answer: historical geology

4 Which of Earth’s spheres includes the oceans, groundwater, lakes, and glaciers?
the atmosphere the hydrosphere the biosphere the geosphere none of the above the hydrosphere

5 The life-forms of the biosphere are located in the ____.
geosphere only hydrosphere and atmosphere only hydrosphere only atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere none of the above atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere

6 What are the three main parts of the geosphere?
atmosphere, crust, core crust, mantle, core lithosphere, mantle, core asthenosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere none of the above crust, mantle, core

7 The theory of plate tectonics helps scientists explain __________.
how earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur how ocean currents move over Earth’s surface why hurricanes occur why Earth’s core is less dense than the mantle none of the above how earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur

8 What is the driving force for the movement of the lithospheric plates?
heat from the sun unequal distribution of heat within Earth heat in the atmosphere unequal distribution of heat in the oceans none of the above unequal distribution of heat within Earth

9 Earth is considered a system because all of its parts ____.
represent separate closed systems were formed at the same time are powered by the same energy source interact none of the above interact

10 Any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole is a(n) ____.
sphere energy source tectonic plate system none of the above system

11 What are the two sources of energy for the Earth system?
lightning and the sun the sun and Earth’s interior the sun and wind Earth’s interior and the winds none of the above the sun and Earth’s interior

12 Which of the following is an example of a renewable resource?
energy from flowing water iron petroleum coal none of the above energy from flowing water

13 Resources that can be replenished over a relatively short time span are called _________.
fossil fuels renewable resources nonrenewable resources mineral resources none of the above renewable resources

14 Which of the following is an example of a renewable resource?
cotton copper natural gas coal none of the above cotton

15 Renewable resources ____.
can be replenished over months, years, or decades are all living resources have finite supplies that will one day be used up include iron, natural gas, and copper none of the above

16 Which of the following is an example of a nonrenewable resource?
cotton trees cattle uranium none of the above uranium

17 Which of the following energy resources might replace dwindling petroleum supplies one day?
coal and natural gas tar sands and uranium oil shale and tar sands wind and coal none of the above oil shale and tar sands

18 Vein deposits are usually produced by __________.
hydrothermal solutions cementation and compaction weathering density sorting none of the above hydrothermal solutions

19 Which of the following is a nonmetallic mineral resource?
wood coal iron aggregate none of the above aggregate

20 What are nonmetallic resources commonly used for?
manufacturing steel producing energy the nonmetallic elements they contain or their physical and chemical properties the metallic elements they contain or their physical and chemical properties none of the above the metallic elements they contain or their physical and chemical properties

21 The advantages of solar energy include the fact that it is ____.
absent at night nonrenewable expensive non-polluting none of the above non-polluting

22 Wind power generates ____.
noise pollution air pollution water pollution soil pollution none of the above noise pollution

23 Hydroelectric power is produced by ____.
falling water that turns a turbine tides that pour through a dam barrier hot water that comes from deep underground electric current that flows across a dam none of the above falling water that turns a turbine

24 What is the source of geothermal energy?
natural underground reservoirs of steam and hot water sunlight heating surface waters the splitting of atoms to release energy very hot minerals deep underground none of the above natural underground reservoirs of steam and hot water

25 Fresh water is used for which of the following?
drinking growing food cooking all of the above none of the above all of the above

26 The water cycle is the ____.
the evaporation of water from Earth’s surface distribution of drinking water on Earth the recycling of water after industrial use unending circulation of Earth’s water supply none of the above Answer: unending circulation of Earth’s water supply

27 Plants release water into the atmosphere through a process called ____.
infiltration precipitation evaporation transpiration all of the above Answer: transpiration

28 The average annual precipitation worldwide must equal the quantity of water ____.
locked in glaciers evaporated infiltrated transpired all of the above Answer: evaporated

29 The ability of a stream to erode and transport material depends largely on its ____.
density length width velocity all of the above Answer: velocity

30 A natural levee is ____. an erosional feature perpendicular to the stream channel an erosional feature parallel to the stream channel a depositional feature parallel to the stream channel a depositional feature perpendicular to the stream channel all of the above Answer: a depositional feature parallel to the stream channel

31 A floodplain forms where a stream ____.
cuts mainly side to side cuts downward rapidly carries no bed load is far above its base level none of the above Answer: cuts mainly side to side

32 One major cause of floods is ____.
light rain over a large area a decrease in stream discharge increased capacity of stream channels rapid spring snow melt all of the above Answer: rapid spring snow melt

33 Groundwater is found underground in the zone of ____.
saturation aeration soil sediment none of the above Answer: saturation

34 Which of the following is a measure of a material’s ability to transmit fluids through interconnected pore spaces? permeability capacity porosity competence all of the above Answer: permeability

35 Springs form where _________.
groundwater sinks into the soil there is no water table flooding makes streams overflow their banks the water table intersects the ground surface none of the above Answer: the water table intersects the ground surface

36 When groundwater enters underground fractures or caverns in hot igneous rocks, where it is heated to boiling temperatures, what feature can form? Answer: geyser aquitard sinkhole geyser spring all of the above

37 Which of the following is NOT a major source of groundwater pollution?
compost pesticides sewage industrial chemicals none of the above Answer: compost

38 A thick ice mass that forms over the land from the accumulation, compaction, and recrystallization of snow is a _____________. drumlin cirque fjord glacier all of the above Answer: glacier

39 Currently, about what percent of Earth’s land surface is covered by glaciers?
70% 110% 25% 40% 10% Answer: 10%

40 Which of the following is NOT true about glaciers?
They show evidence of past or present flow. They form from the recrystallization of snow. They originate on land. They exist only in the Northern Hemisphere. all of the above Answer: They exist only in the Northern Hemisphere.

41 During the most recent ice age, what percentage of Earth’s surface was covered by glaciers?
10% 30% 75% 90% all of the above Answer: 30%

42 Which of the following features was formed by glacial erosion?
Navajo Lake the Mississippi River the Missouri River the Great Lakes the Basin and Range Answer: the Great Lakes

43 What force causes most of the erosion in desert areas?
fire running water gravity ice wind Answer: running water

44 Why can a heavy rain shower cause a large amount of erosion in a desert area?
There is a lack of vegetation to hold the soil in place. Lizards don’t like water Temperatures are very high. Streams overflow easily. Desert ground cannot absorb any water. Answer: There is a lack of vegetation to hold the soil in place.

45 What is the main type of weathering in deserts?
weathering by water chemical weathering weathering by organic acids physical weathering all of the above Answer: physical weathering

46 Abrasion changes the desert surface by ____.
creating pinnacles and narrow pedestals in the rock creating blowouts cutting and polishing exposed rock surfaces depositing loess across the landscape all of the above Answer: cutting and polishing exposed rock surfaces

47 Deflation affected the Dust Bowl in the 1930s by ____.
lowering the land depositing coarse sand and gravel building up sand dunes creating rock pinnacles all of the above Answer: lowering the land

48 Windblown silt that blankets a landscape is called ____.
loess a blowout desert pavement a sand dune none of the above Answer: loess

49 Over time, sand dunes tend to migrate ____.
in random directions in the same direction as the wind blows toward the wind perpendicular to the movement of the wind all of the above Answer: in the same direction as the wind blows

50 Wegener’s continental drift hypothesis stated that all the continents once joined together to form ____. two major supercontinents and three smaller continents two major supercontinents three major supercontinents one major supercontinent none of the above Answer: one major supercontinent

51 The supercontinent in the continental drift hypothesis was called ____.
Panthalassa Pangaea Mesosaurus Africa All of the above Answer: Pangaea

52 What hypothesis states that the continents were once joined to form a single supercontinent?
seafloor spreading continental drift paleomagnetism plate tectonics None of the above Answer: continental drift

53 One kind of evidence that supports Wegener’s hypothesis is that ____.
fossils of the same organism have been found on different continents major rivers on different continents match the same magnetic directions exist on different continents land bridges still exist that connect major continents none of the above Answer: fossils of the same organism have been found on different continents

54 Evidence about ancient climates indicates that ____.
glacial ice once covered much of what is now India and Australia continents in the Northern Hemisphere today were once centered over the South Pole no continents occupied the Southern Hemisphere continents in the Southern Hemisphere today were once centered over the North Pole Answer: glacial ice once covered much of what is now India and Australia

55 Which of the following was NOT used in support of the continental drift hypothesis?
fit of South America and Africa fossil evidence Paleomagnetism ancient climate none of the above Answer: Paleomagnetism https://www.e-education.psu.edu/earth520/content/l3_p5.html

56 What was the main reason Wegener’s continental drift hypothesis was rejected?
He was not well liked by other scientists. His evidence was incorrect. He could provide only illogical explanations for the movement of the continents. He could not provide a mechanism for the movement of the continents. All of the above Answer: He could not provide a mechanism for the movement of the continents.

57 The lithospheric plates move an average of ____.
5 centimeters per year 5 inches per year 50 inches per year 50 centimeters per year none of the above Answer: 5 centimeters per year

58 What kind of plate boundary occurs where two plates grind past each other without destroying or producing lithosphere? divergent boundary transitional boundary convergent boundary transform fault boundary all of the above Answer: transform fault boundary

59 A divergent boundary at two oceanic plates can result in a ____.
volcanic island arc rift valley continental volcanic arc subduction zone all of the above Answer: rift valley

60 Which of the following is a geographic example of a transform fault boundary?
the Mid-Atlantic Ridge the East African Rift valley the Andes Mountains the San Andreas Fault none of the above Answer: the San Andreas Fault

61 New ocean crust is formed at ____.
transform fault boundaries divergent boundaries continental volcanic arcs convergent boundaries all of the above Answer: divergent boundaries

62 How old is Earth? 16 million years 2 billion years 4.6 million years
all of the above Answer: 4.56 billion years

63 Which of the following gases was NOT part of Earth’s original atmosphere?
oxygen water vapor carbon dioxide nitrogen none of the above Answer: oxygen

64 How far back does the fossil record extend?
560 million years 3.5 billion years 1 billion years 3 million years all of the above Answer: 3.5 billion years

65 What important event in animal evolution marks the beginning of the Cambrian?
the appearance of hard parts the ability to swim the appearance of fossils the ability to fly none of the above Answer: the appearance of hard parts

66 During the Pennsylvanian period, large tropical swamps extended across North America, eventually forming __________. vast coal deposits tropical rain forests mountain ranges inland seas all of the above Answer: vast coal deposits

67 The Rocky Mountains began to form as the North American plate overrode the ____.
Pacific plate African continent supercontinent Pangaea Atlantic rift none of the above Answer: Pacific plate

68 What were the first true terrestrial animals?
reptiles marsupials trilobites mammals all of the above Answer: reptiles

69 Which of the following was NOT one of the changes in development and specialization that primitive mammals underwent? increase in size increase in brain capacity specialization of teeth increase in stomach capacity none of the above Answer: increase in stomach capacity

70 How are mammals distinct from reptiles?
Mammals lay eggs. Mammals have body hair. Mammals have lungs. Mammals are cold-blooded. none of the above Answer: Mammals have body hair.

71 Mammals became dominant only after ____.
continental glaciers retreated inland seas dried up the Cenozoic Era ended the industrial revolution dinner dinosaurs became extinct Answer: dinosaurs became extinct

72 What is the salinity of seawater?
75 percent 10 percent 5.5 percent 3.5 percent 1.5 percent Answer: 3.5 percent

73 Ocean salinity is usually expressed in ____.
chemical formulas love letters parts per billion Charts parts per thousand Answer: parts per thousand

74 In addition to salinity, what factor affects the density of seawater?
boat size latitude temperature depth salt content Answer: temperature

75 Organisms that drift with ocean currents are called ____.
plankton hitchhikers benthos nekton photic Answer: plankton

76 What term describes organisms that live on or in the ocean floor?
pelagic iguanas benthos nekton plankton Answer: benthos

77 Marine organisms are classified according to how they ____.
live and move move live eat communicate Answer: live and move

78 How do animals survive in the deeper parts of the seafloor?
they vacation They feed at the surface. They photosynthesize. They feed on each other. none of the above Answer: They feed on each other.

79 Which ocean zone does sunlight penetrate?
time zone neritic zone aphotic zone abyssal zone photic zone Answer: photic zone

80 How is chemical energy transferred from algae to marine animals?
feeding reproducing swimming none of the above all of the above Answer: feeding

81 Which animal would have the greatest chance of survival?
one that ate a wide variety of prey one that fed through a food chain one that fed through a food web both the first and third options are true none of the above Answer: both a and c

82 Because of the Coriolis effect, ocean currents in the Northern Hemisphere are deflected to the __________. north south left right all of the above Answer: right

83 Ocean currents that move toward the poles are ____.
warm warm in the Northern Hemisphere and cold in the Southern Hemisphere cold cold in the Northern Hemisphere and warm in the Southern Hemisphere none of the above Answer: warm

84 What is true about an ocean current that is moving toward the equator?
It is cold. It is slow. It is warm. It is fast. none of the above Answer: It is cold.

85 Which of the following is visible evidence of energy passing through water?
density tide Coriolis effect sea arch wave all of the above Answer: wave

86 The smallest daily tidal range occurs during which type of tide?
ebb tide spring tide neap tide flood tide none of the above Answer: neap tide

87 Which of the following is a tidal current?
neap tide flood tide spring tide both a and c none of the above Answer: both a and c

88 The accumulation of sediment found along the shore of a lake or ocean is called a ____.
dust bowl neap tide sea arch longshore current beach Answer: beach

89 Wave impact and pressure cause ___________.
irritability refraction deposition tides erosion Answer: erosion

90 Waves in shallow water become bent and begin to run parallel to shore, a process known as ____.
relocation oscillation refraction erosion reflection Answer: refraction

91 Which of the following is a landform created by wave erosion?
breakwater estuary bomb shelter tombolo sea arch Answer: sea arch

92 Global winds move warm air toward the ____.
oceans parking lot equator atmosphere poles Answer: poles

93 What do plants release into the air during transpiration?
water vapor insects carbon dioxide complex sugars pollen Answer: water vapor

94 Which type of climate has no winters?
highland dry polar humid tropical none of the above Answer: humid tropical

95 Where are dry-summer tropical climates found in the United States?
Vermont California Texas Arizona Utah Answer: California

96 In dry climates, rates of evaporation exceed ____.
average temperatures rates of precipitation number of sunny days rates of condensation all of the above Answer: rates of precipitation

97 What happens to air when it sinks?
It becomes wetter. Its pressure decreases. It expands and cools. It compresses and warms. none of the above Answer: It compresses and warms.

98 Which climate experiences seasonal periods of perpetual night?
polar humid tropical highland humid mid-latitude all of the above Answer: polar

99 In general, how do highland climates compare to nearby areas at lower elevations?
They are warmer and wetter. They are cooler and wetter. They are more popular with tourists They are warmer and drier. They are cooler and drier. Answer: They are cooler and wetter.

100 What phenomenon naturally warms Earth’s lower atmosphere and surface?
belief in unicorns the formation of sunspots global warming the greenhouse effect changes in the shape of Earth’s orbit Answer: the greenhouse effect

101 What is the relationship between fossil fuels and the greenhouse effect?
Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Burning fossil fuels decreases the absorption capacity of greenhouse gases. Burning fossil fuels decreases incoming solar radiation. Burning fossil fuels lowers the greenhouse effect. none of the above Answer: Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.


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