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Final Exam (S2) Environmental Science Ms. Phillips 2013-2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Final Exam (S2) Environmental Science Ms. Phillips 2013-2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Final Exam (S2) Environmental Science Ms. Phillips

2 Which of the following is NOT one of the main areas of Earth science? 0 astrology 0 geology 0 oceanography 0 astronomy 0 none of the above

3 The area of Earth science that examines the physical and biological changes that have occurred in Earth’s past is called ____. 0 meteorology 0 oceanography 0 physical geology 0 historical geology 0 meteorites

4 Which of Earth’s spheres includes the oceans, groundwater, lakes, and glaciers? 0 the atmosphere 0 the hydrosphere 0 the biosphere 0 the geosphere 0 none of the above

5 The life-forms of the biosphere are located in the ____. 0 geosphere only 0 hydrosphere and atmosphere only 0 hydrosphere only 0 atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere 0 none of the above

6 What are the three main parts of the geosphere? 0 atmosphere, crust, core 0 crust, mantle, core 0 lithosphere, mantle, core 0 asthenosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere 0 none of the above

7 The theory of plate tectonics helps scientists explain __________. 0 how earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur 0 how ocean currents move over Earth’s surface 0 why hurricanes occur 0 why Earth’s core is less dense than the mantle 0 none of the above

8 What is the driving force for the movement of the lithospheric plates? 0 heat from the sun 0 unequal distribution of heat within Earth 0 heat in the atmosphere 0 unequal distribution of heat in the oceans 0 none of the above

9 Earth is considered a system because all of its parts ____. 0 represent separate closed systems 0 were formed at the same time 0 are powered by the same energy source 0 interact 0 none of the above

10 Any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole is a(n) ____. 0 sphere 0 energy source 0 tectonic plate 0 system 0 none of the above

11 What are the two sources of energy for the Earth system? 0 lightning and the sun 0 the sun and Earth’s interior 0 the sun and wind 0 Earth’s interior and the winds 0 none of the above

12 Which of the following is an example of a renewable resource? 0 energy from flowing water 0 iron 0 petroleum 0 coal 0 none of the above

13 Resources that can be replenished over a relatively short time span are called _________. 0 fossil fuels 0 renewable resources 0 nonrenewable resources 0 mineral resources 0 none of the above

14 Which of the following is an example of a renewable resource? 0 cotton 0 copper 0 natural gas 0 coal 0 none of the above

15 Renewable resources ____. 0 can be replenished over months, years, or decades 0 are all living resources 0 have finite supplies that will one day be used up 0 include iron, natural gas, and copper 0 none of the above

16 Which of the following is an example of a nonrenewable resource? 0 cotton 0 trees 0 cattle 0 uranium 0 none of the above

17 Which of the following energy resources might replace dwindling petroleum supplies one day? 0 coal and natural gas 0 tar sands and uranium 0 oil shale and tar sands 0 wind and coal 0 none of the above

18 Vein deposits are usually produced by __________. 0 hydrothermal solutions 0 cementation and compaction 0 weathering 0 density sorting 0 none of the above

19 Which of the following is a nonmetallic mineral resource? 0 wood 0 coal 0 iron 0 aggregate 0 none of the above

20 What are nonmetallic resources commonly used for? 0 manufacturing steel 0 producing energy 0 the nonmetallic elements they contain or their physical and chemical properties 0 the metallic elements they contain or their physical and chemical properties 0 none of the above

21 The advantages of solar energy include the fact that it is ____. 0 absent at night 0 nonrenewable 0 expensive 0 non-polluting 0 none of the above

22 Wind power generates ____. 0 noise pollution 0 air pollution 0 water pollution 0 soil pollution 0 none of the above

23 Hydroelectric power is produced by ____. 0 falling water that turns a turbine 0 tides that pour through a dam barrier 0 hot water that comes from deep underground 0 electric current that flows across a dam 0 none of the above

24 What is the source of geothermal energy? 0 natural underground reservoirs of steam and hot water 0 sunlight heating surface waters 0 the splitting of atoms to release energy 0 very hot minerals deep undergroun d 0 none of the above

25 Fresh water is used for which of the following? 0 drinking 0 growing food 0 cooking 0 all of the above 0 none of the above

26 The water cycle is the ____. 0 the evaporation of water from Earth’s surface 0 distribution of drinking water on Earth 0 the recycling of water after industrial use 0 unending circulation of Earth’s water supply 0 none of the above

27 Plants release water into the atmosphere through a process called ____. 0 infiltration 0 precipitation 0 evaporation 0 transpiration 0 all of the above

28 The average annual precipitation worldwide must equal the quantity of water ____. 0 locked in glaciers 0 evaporated 0 infiltrated 0 transpired 0 all of the above

29 The ability of a stream to erode and transport material depends largely on its ____. 0 density 0 length 0 width 0 velocity 0 all of the above

30 A natural levee is ____. 0 an erosional feature perpendicular to the stream channel 0 an erosional feature parallel to the stream channel 0 a depositional feature parallel to the stream channel 0 a depositional feature perpendicular to the stream channel 0 all of the above

31 A floodplain forms where a stream ____. 0 cuts mainly side to side 0 cuts downward rapidly 0 carries no bed load 0 is far above its base level 0 none of the above

32 One major cause of floods is ____. 0 light rain over a large area 0 a decrease in stream discharge 0 increased capacity of stream channels 0 rapid spring snow melt 0 all of the above

33 Groundwater is found underground in the zone of ____. 0 saturation 0 aeration 0 soil 0 sediment 0 none of the above

34 Which of the following is a measure of a material’s ability to transmit fluids through interconnected pore spaces? 0 permeability 0 capacity 0 porosity 0 competence 0 all of the above

35 Springs form where _________. 0 groundwater sinks into the soil 0 there is no water table 0 flooding makes streams overflow their banks 0 the water table intersects the ground surface 0 none of the above

36 When groundwater enters underground fractures or caverns in hot igneous rocks, where it is heated to boiling temperatures, what feature can form? 0 aquitard 0 sinkhole 0 geyser 0 spring 0 all of the above

37 Which of the following is NOT a major source of groundwater pollution? 0 compost 0 pesticides 0 sewage 0 industrial chemicals 0 none of the above

38 A thick ice mass that forms over the land from the accumulation, compaction, and recrystallization of snow is a _____________. 0 drumlin 0 cirque 0 fjord 0 glacier 0 all of the above

39 Currently, about what percent of Earth’s land surface is covered by glaciers? 0 70% 0 110% 0 25% 0 40% 0 10%

40 Which of the following is NOT true about glaciers? 0 They show evidence of past or present flow. 0 They form from the recrystallization of snow. 0 They originate on land. 0 They exist only in the Northern Hemisphere. 0 all of the above

41 During the most recent ice age, what percentage of Earth’s surface was covered by glaciers? 0 10% 0 30% 0 75% 0 90% 0 all of the above

42 Which of the following features was formed by glacial erosion? 0 Navajo Lake 0 the Mississippi River 0 the Missouri River 0 the Great Lakes 0 the Basin and Range

43 What force causes most of the erosion in desert areas? 0 fire 0 running water 0 gravity 0 ice 0 wind

44 Why can a heavy rain shower cause a large amount of erosion in a desert area? 0 There is a lack of vegetation to hold the soil in place. 0 Lizards don’t like water 0 Temperatures are very high. 0 Streams overflow easily. 0 Desert ground cannot absorb any water.

45 What is the main type of weathering in deserts? 0 weathering by water 0 chemical weathering 0 weathering by organic acids 0 physical weathering 0 all of the above

46 Abrasion changes the desert surface by ____. 0 creating pinnacles and narrow pedestals in the rock 0 creating blowouts 0 cutting and polishing exposed rock surfaces 0 depositing loess across the landscape 0 all of the above

47 Deflation affected the Dust Bowl in the 1930 s by ____. 0 lowering the land 0 depositing coarse sand and gravel 0 building up sand dunes 0 creating rock pinnacles 0 all of the above

48 Windblown silt that blankets a landscape is called ____. 0 loess 0 a blowout 0 desert pavement 0 a sand dune 0 none of the above

49 Over time, sand dunes tend to migrate ____. 0 in random directions 0 in the same direction as the wind blows 0 toward the wind 0 perpendicular to the movement of the wind 0 all of the above

50 Wegener’s continental drift hypothesis stated that all the continents once joined together to form ____. 0 two major supercontinents and three smaller continents 0 two major supercontinents 0 three major supercontinents 0 one major supercontinent 0 none of the above

51 The supercontinent in the continental drift hypothesis was called ____. 0 Panthalassa 0 Pangaea 0 Mesosaurus 0 Africa 0 All of the above

52 What hypothesis states that the continents were once joined to form a single supercontinent? 0 seafloor spreading 0 continental drift 0 paleomagnetism 0 plate tectonics 0 None of the above

53 One kind of evidence that supports Wegener’s hypothesis is that ____. 0 fossils of the same organism have been found on different continents 0 major rivers on different continents match 0 the same magnetic directions exist on different continents 0 land bridges still exist that connect major continents 0 none of the above

54 Evidence about ancient climates indicates that ____. 0 glacial ice once covered much of what is now India and Australia 0 continents in the Northern Hemisphere today were once centered over the South Pole 0 no continents occupied the Southern Hemisphere 0 continents in the Southern Hemisphere today were once centered over the North Pole

55 Which of the following was NOT used in support of the continental drift hypothesis? 0 fit of South America and Africa 0 fossil evidence 0 Paleomagnetism 0 ancient climate 0 none of the above https://www.e-education.psu.edu/earth520/content/l3_p5.html

56 What was the main reason Wegener’s continental drift hypothesis was rejected? 0 He was not well liked by other scientists. 0 His evidence was incorrect. 0 He could provide only illogical explanations for the movement of the continents. 0 He could not provide a mechanism for the movement of the continents. 0 All of the above

57 The lithospheric plates move an average of ____. 0 5 centimeters per year 0 5 inches per year 0 50 inches per year 0 50 centimeters per year 0 none of the above

58 What kind of plate boundary occurs where two plates grind past each other without destroying or producing lithosphere? 0 divergent boundary 0 transitional boundary 0 convergent boundary 0 transform fault boundary 0 all of the above

59 A divergent boundary at two oceanic plates can result in a ____. 0 volcanic island arc 0 rift valley 0 continental volcanic arc 0 subduction zone 0 all of the above

60 Which of the following is a geographic example of a transform fault boundary? 0 the Mid-Atlantic Ridge 0 the East African Rift valley 0 the Andes Mountains 0 the San Andreas Fault 0 none of the above

61 New ocean crust is formed at ____. 0 transform fault boundaries 0 divergent boundaries 0 continental volcanic arcs 0 convergent boundaries 0 all of the above

62 How old is Earth? 0 16 million years 0 2 billion years million years billion years 0 all of the above

63 Which of the following gases was NOT part of Earth’s original atmosphere? 0 oxygen 0 water vapor 0 carbon dioxide 0 nitrogen 0 none of the above

64 How far back does the fossil record extend? million years billion years 0 1 billion years 0 3 million years 0 all of the above

65 What important event in animal evolution marks the beginning of the Cambrian? 0 the appearance of hard parts 0 the ability to swim 0 the appearance of fossils 0 the ability to fly 0 none of the above

66 During the Pennsylvanian period, large tropical swamps extended across North America, eventually forming __________. 0 vast coal deposits 0 tropical rain forests 0 mountain ranges 0 inland seas 0 all of the above

67 The Rocky Mountains began to form as the North American plate overrode the ____. 0 Pacific plate 0 African continent 0 supercontinent Pangaea 0 Atlantic rift 0 none of the above &cd=8&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

68 What were the first true terrestrial animals? 0 reptiles 0 marsupials 0 trilobites 0 mammals 0 all of the above

69 Which of the following was NOT one of the changes in development and specialization that primitive mammals underwent? 0 increase in size 0 increase in brain capacity 0 specialization of teeth 0 increase in stomach capacity 0 none of the above

70 How are mammals distinct from reptiles? 0 Mammals lay eggs. 0 Mammals have body hair. 0 Mammals have lungs. 0 Mammals are cold- blooded. 0 none of the above ther/raven06_48.pdf+&cd=5&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

71 Mammals became dominant only after ____. 0 continental glaciers retreated 0 inland seas dried up 0 the Cenozoic Era ended 0 the industrial revolution 0 dinner 0 dinosaurs became extinct n6b/graphics/raven06b/other/raven06_48.pdf+&cd=5&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

72 What is the salinity of seawater? 0 75 percent 0 10 percent percent percent percent

73 Ocean salinity is usually expressed in ____. 0 chemical formulas 0 love letters 0 parts per billion 0 Charts 0 parts per thousand

74 In addition to salinity, what factor affects the density of seawater? 0 boat size 0 latitude 0 temperature 0 depth 0 salt content

75 Organisms that drift with ocean currents are called ____. 0 plankton 0 hitchhikers 0 benthos 0 nekton 0 photic

76 What term describes organisms that live on or in the ocean floor? 0 pelagic 0 iguanas 0 benthos 0 nekton 0 plankton

77 Marine organisms are classified according to how they ____. 0 live and move 0 move 0 live 0 eat 0 communicate

78 How do animals survive in the deeper parts of the seafloor? 0 they vacation 0 They feed at the surface. 0 They photosynthesize. 0 They feed on each other. 0 none of the above

79 Which ocean zone does sunlight penetrate? 0 time zone 0 neritic zone 0 aphotic zone 0 abyssal zone 0 photic zone

80 How is chemical energy transferred from algae to marine animals? 0 feeding 0 reproducing 0 swimming 0 none of the above 0 all of the above

81 Which animal would have the greatest chance of survival? 0 one that ate a wide variety of prey 0 one that fed through a food chain 0 one that fed through a food web 0 both the first and third options are true 0 none of the above

82 Because of the Coriolis effect, ocean currents in the Northern Hemisphere are deflected to the __________. 0 north 0 south 0 left 0 right 0 all of the above

83 Ocean currents that move toward the poles are ____. 0 warm 0 warm in the Northern Hemisphere and cold in the Southern Hemisphere 0 cold 0 cold in the Northern Hemisphere and warm in the Southern Hemisphere 0 none of the above

84 What is true about an ocean current that is moving toward the equator? 0 It is cold. 0 It is slow. 0 It is warm. 0 It is fast. 0 none of the above

85 Which of the following is visible evidence of energy passing through water? 0 density tide 0 Coriolis effect 0 sea arch 0 wave 0 all of the above

86 The smallest daily tidal range occurs during which type of tide? 0 ebb tide 0 spring tide 0 neap tide 0 flood tide 0 none of the above

87 Which of the following is a tidal current? 0 neap tide 0 flood tide 0 spring tide 0 both a and c 0 none of the above

88 The accumulation of sediment found along the shore of a lake or ocean is called a ____. 0 dust bowl 0 neap tide 0 sea arch 0 longshore current 0 beach

89 Wave impact and pressure cause ___________. 0 irritability 0 refraction 0 deposition 0 tides 0 erosion

90 Waves in shallow water become bent and begin to run parallel to shore, a process known as ____. 0 relocation 0 oscillation 0 refraction 0 erosion 0 reflection

91 Which of the following is a landform created by wave erosion? 0 breakwater 0 estuary 0 bomb shelter 0 tombolo 0 sea arch

92 Global winds move warm air toward the ____. 0 oceans 0 parking lot 0 equator 0 atmosphere 0 poles

93 What do plants release into the air during transpiration? 0 water vapor 0 insects 0 carbon dioxide 0 complex sugars 0 pollen

94 Which type of climate has no winters? 0 highland 0 dry 0 polar 0 humid tropical 0 none of the above

95 Where are dry-summer tropical climates found in the United States? 0 Vermont 0 California 0 Texas 0 Arizona 0 Utah

96 In dry climates, rates of evaporation exceed ____. 0 average temperatures 0 rates of precipitation 0 number of sunny days 0 rates of condensation 0 all of the above

97 What happens to air when it sinks? 0 It becomes wetter. 0 Its pressure decreases. 0 It expands and cools. 0 It compresses and warms. 0 none of the above

98 Which climate experiences seasonal periods of perpetual night? 0 polar 0 humid tropical 0 highland 0 humid mid-latitude 0 all of the above

99 In general, how do highland climates compare to nearby areas at lower elevations? 0 They are warmer and wetter. 0 They are cooler and wetter. 0 They are more popular with tourists 0 They are warmer and drier. 0 They are cooler and drier.

100 What phenomenon naturally warms Earth’s lower atmosphere and surface? 0 belief in unicorns 0 the formation of sunspots 0 global warming 0 the greenhouse effect 0 changes in the shape of Earth’s orbit

101 What is the relationship between fossil fuels and the greenhouse effect? 0 Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. 0 Burning fossil fuels decreases the absorption capacity of greenhouse gases. 0 Burning fossil fuels decreases incoming solar radiation. 0 Burning fossil fuels lowers the greenhouse effect. 0 none of the above


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