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Ch. 2 “A Living Planet”. Ch. 2.1 “The Earth Inside and Out”

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 2 “A Living Planet”. Ch. 2.1 “The Earth Inside and Out”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 2 “A Living Planet”

2 Ch. 2.1 “The Earth Inside and Out”

3 The Solar System Nine (Eight) planets and other celestial bodies that revolve around a sun Earth is 3 rd planet

4 Earth’s Structure Core: solid, very hot, made of iron and nickel Mantle: molten rock aka. magma Crust: made of tectonic plates Plates that rise above ocean waters form the 7 Continents

5 Above Ground Atmosphere: layer of gases that surround earth Lithosphere: solid rock surface Hydrosphere: water elements Ecosphere/Biosphere: plants and animals

6 “Continental Drift Theory”

7 “Sea Floor Spreading” One of the causes continental drift. Occurs over millions of years

8 Ch. 2.2 “Bodies of Water and Landforms”

9 Oceans and Seas Oceans: interconnected body of salt water Covers 71% of planet 3 basic motions: –Current –Waves –Tides

10 Lakes, Rivers, Streams Lakes: –Hold 95% of all fresh water –Can be both fresh and salt water (Great Salt Lake) Rivers and Streams feed water to oceans and lakes Drainage basin: area drained by rivers and streams

11 “Hydrologic Cycle” Continuous circulation of water between the: 1.Oceans, Lakes 2.Atmosphere 3.Earth

12 Ground Water Water that is held in pores of rock Water table –The level at which the rock is saturated

13 Landforms Naturally formed features on the earth 2 kinds: 1.Oceanic 2.Continental

14 Oceanic Landforms Seafloor has same features except below water Continental Shelf: edge of continent to deep part of ocean

15 Continental Landforms Relief: difference in elevation from lowest to highest point

16 Ch. 2.3 “Internal Forces that shape the earth”

17 Plate Tectonics Pieces of earths crust that float on magma Interaction of plates is what shapes the earth

18 Plate Boundaries Plate Boundaries: where plates come in contact with one another –3 Types 1.Divergent 2.Convergent 3.Transform

19 Divergent boundary plates move apart or spread Example is sea floor spreading

20 Convergent Boundary Plates collide and either: 1.Dive under one another 2.Rip up Fault: fracture in the earths crust Fig 2 Fig 1

21 Transform boundary Plates slide past one another Earthquake: violent movement of plates

22 Earthquakes Epicenter: surface mark of quakes beginning Richter scale: measures amount of energy released by an earthquake. Tsunami: giant wave

23 Volcanoes Where magma (lava) pours out of earth onto the surface Ring of Fire: volcanic zone around the rim of Pacific Ocean

24 Ch. 2.4 “External Forces Shaping the earth”

25 Weathering The mechanical-(physical) and chemical process that changes earth –Break down rock to form sediment 2 forms: A. MechanicalB. Chemical

26 Mechanical Weathering Process that breaks rock into smaller pieces Ice crystals, plant roots, drilling are all examples

27 Chemical Weathering When rock is changed into new substance after reacting to air or water –Ex: iron rust

28 Erosion The movement of weathered material 3 Kinds: A. WaterB. WindC. Glacier

29 Water Erosion Movement of material through the motion of water flow through streams, rivers, ocean currents -when a river enters the ocean, sediment is deposited in fan-like landforms called deltas

30 Wind Erosion Movement of material through the wind

31 Deposits New landforms are created by loess- –Wind-blown silt and clay sediment that produces fertile soil.

32 Glacial Erosion Glacier: large, long lasting mass of ice Glaciation: changing of landforms by slow moving glaciers –Ridges or hills formed by glacial rocks are called a moraine.

33 Building Soil Weathering and erosion are part of the process of “building soil” Soil is comprised of rock, humus, air, and water Humus: organic material

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