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Earth’s Spheres & Branches of Earth Science Module E Intro Unit 1 Lesson 1 Pages 4-7.

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1 Earth’s Spheres & Branches of Earth Science Module E Intro Unit 1 Lesson 1 Pages 4-7

2 What is a System? Systems – a group of interacting parts that work to together to do a job or to form a whole. Open Systems Closed Systems I will be able to describe and identify the two types of systems.

3 What is a System? Systems – Open System Matter and energy can flow into and out of the system. – Uncovered pan of boiling water. – Vegetable Garden – Natural Environment I will be able to describe and identify the two types of systems.

4 What is a System? Systems – Closed System Matter cannot enter or leave, energy can. – Covered pan of boiling water. – Terrarium – Greenhouse I will be able to describe and identify the two types of systems.

5 Open or Closed Systems?

6 What is the Earth’s System? Earth System – A complex system made up of: Matter – Living Things – Nonliving things. Energy Processes within Earth’s – Matter and energy continuously cycled through the smaller systems that make up Earth’s spheres. I will be able to describe the parts of Earth’s System and explain how matter and energy are transferred through it.

7 What is the Earth’s Geosphere? Geosphere – Mostly solid, rocky part of the Earth. – Divided into 3 Layers 1. Crust 2. Mantle 3. Core a. Inner Core b. Outer Core I will be able to define and describe the five main spheres that make up the Earth.

8 What is the Earth’s Hydrosphere? Hydrosphere – Part of the Earth that is liquid water. – Always moving, through all spheres. – 71% of Earth’s surface is the ocean. Lakes Rivers Marshes Rain Underground water Droplets in clouds. I will be able to define and describe the four main spheres that make up the Earth.

9 What is the Earth’s Cryosphere? Cryosphere – Made up of all frozen water on Earth. Ice Sea Ice Glaciers Ice Shelves Ice Bergs Snow I will be able to define and describe the five main spheres that make up the Earth.

10 What is the Earth’s Atmosphere? Atmosphere – Mostly made of invisible gases that surround the Earth. – Contains the air we breathe. – Composition 71% Nitrogen 23% Oxygen 1% Trace Gases. – Traps Heat Energy from the sun. Greenhouse effect, keeps the planet warm. I will be able to define and describe the five main spheres that make up the Earth.

11 What is the Earth’s Biosphere? Biosphere – Made up of living things and their habitats. – Must Have: Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Liquid Water Moderate Temperatures Source of Energy – Sun – Plants and Algae (photosynthesis) I will be able to define and describe the five main spheres that make up the Earth.

12 How Do Earth’s Spheres Interact? Matter and Energy – 1. By exchange of matter. Water Cycle – Water evaporates into the atmosphere. – Water condenses forming clouds. Nitrogen Cycle – Bacteria release nitrogen into the soil from the atmosphere. – Plants use nitrogen to grow. I will be able to describe the parts of Earth’s System and explain how matter and energy are transferred through it.

13 How Do Earth’s Spheres Interact? 2. By exchange of energy Moves back and forth between spheres. Plants use solar energy to make food. Animals eat plants for energy. Solar Energy – Drives winds and Weather I will be able to describe the parts of Earth’s System and explain how matter and energy are transferred through it.

14 What is the Source of Earth’s Energy? Earth’s Energy – Most comes from the Sun. – A tiny fraction Ocean Tides Geothermal – Lava & Magma – Moves or Changes form – Not created or destroyed. – Transferred between spheres I will be able to describe the parts of Earth’s System and explain how matter and energy are transferred through it.

15 What is the Source of Earth’s Energy? Energy Budget – A way to keep track of energy transfers into and out of Earth’s system. – Unbalanced budget Can increase or decrease Earth’s temperatures. I will be able to describe the parts of Earth’s System and explain how matter and energy are transferred through it.

16 What can disturb Earth’s Energy Budget? Disturbed Energy Budget – 1. Increasing Greenhouse gases. – 2. Melting Polar Ice Caps I will be able to describe the parts of Earth’s System and explain how matter and energy are transferred through it.

17 What are the Branches of Earth Science? 5 Branches I will be able to define matter and describe the properties of matter. OceanographyEnvironmental Geology Astronomy Meteorology

18 What are the Branches of Earth Science? Astronomy – The study of the universe beyond Earth. – Astronomers study: Stars Planets Galaxies History of the Universe. I will be able to define and describe the five branches of Earth Science. Reason for tides Different Galaxies The SunMarsPlanetsStars Reason for Seasons Telescopes Reason for night/day Astronomer

19 What are the Branches of Earth Science? Environmental Science – The study of Earth’s environment and resources and the effect of human activities – Environmentalists or ecologist study problems like: Pollution Global Warming I will be able to define and describe the five branches of Earth Science. Global Warming Conservation of Earth’s resources. Effects of oil spills Effects of landfills Effects of fertilizer on ground water. Melting Ice Caps Air Pollution Greenhouse effect Ecologist

20 What are the Branches of Earth Science? Geology – The study the solid Earth. – Geologists study the forces that shape Earth. I will be able to define and describe the five branches of Earth Science. Volcanoes Seismic Waves Formation of Mountains Predicting Earthquakes Effects of Soil Erosion Minerals Inside of Earth Natural Resources Geologist

21 What are the Branches of Earth Science? Meteorology – The study of Earth’s atmosphere. Meteorologists gather information about conditions in the atmosphere from around the world. Forecast weather. I will be able to define and describe the five branches of Earth Science. Meteorologist Chasing Tornadoes The Ozone Layer The Layers of the Atmosphere Wind Patterns in North Wales Predicting the Weather Predicting Hurricanes

22 What are the Branches of Earth Science? Oceanography – The study of Earth’s oceans. Oceanographers study: – Chemistry of the ocean. – Shape of the ocean floor. – Organisms living in them. I will be able to define and describe the five branches of Earth Science. Studying Tsunamis Cold/Warm Ocean Currents Ocean life zones Recording tides Wave patterns at the beach Studying the Intertidal Zone Studying what makes up ocean water. Coral reefsOcean floor Oceanographer


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