2 Day 1: Earth’s Structures and Patterns Big Idea 6 Learning Goals: Students will be able toDifferentiate between physical and chemical weatheringDifferentiate between weathering, erosion, and depositionExplain the composition of the layers of the EarthExplain how the changes in rocks within the rock cycle relates to weathering, erosion, and deposition.Explain how we use the law of superposition and radioactive dating to date fossils.Explain how the theory of plate tectonics is used to describe how the Earth’s surface is built up and torn down.Explain how the convecting mantle causes earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and creates mountains and ocean basins.
3 Physical vs. Chemical Weathering Bellwork – Day 1: Differentiate between physical and chemical weatheringTypes of weatheringExplanation of typeAgents for weatheringPhysicalThe breaking down of rock into smaller pieces by physical meansIce, Wind, Water, Gravity, Plants, AnimalsChemicalprocess of breaking down rock as a result of chemical reactionsWater- important because most substances dissolve in water, Acids found in: Acid Precipitation, Acids in groundwater, Acids in living things, the measure of acidity is called pH. An acid has a pH less than 7NGSSS: SC.6.E.6.1: Describe and give examples of ways in which Earth's surface is built up and torn down by physical and chemical weathering, erosion, and deposition.
4 Differentiate between weathering, erosion, and deposition Weathering is the breaking down of rocks and other materials on the earth’s surface. There are 2 types of weathering: Physical and Chemical (bellwork)Erosion is the movement of weathered material from one place to another. Erosion occurs faster on barren land than on land covered with vegetation. (plant roots hold soil in place)Deposition is when soil, rocks, or other sediment are deposited, or left, somewhere different than where they started. Deposition occurs as the agents of deposition slow down and lose energy
6 Explain the composition of the layers of the Earth. The Earth has 3 main layers: the crust, mantle and the coreCrust: the brittle, rocky outer layer of Earth. Very thin compared to other layers, like the shell of an egg. Two types: Oceanic Crust – crust under the oceans and Continental Crust – crust on land (thickerMantle: thick middle layer in the solid part of the EarthUppermost Mantle (Lithosphere) similar rocks to that of the crust; Asthenosphere - heated rocks begin to melt and flow slowly underneath the lithosphere. Upper Mantle - higher temperatures and high pressure cause rocks to stop melting and become solid againLower Mantle - most dense part of the mantleCore: dense and metallic center of the Earth, 2 parts – Solid inner core and liquid outer core composed mainly of iron and a small amount of nickelSC.7.P.6.1: Describe the layers of the solid Earth, including the lithosphere, the hot convecting mantle, and the dense metallic liquid and solid cores.
8 Explain how the changes in rocks within the rock cycle relates to weathering, erosion, and depositionSedimentary rock: Rocks found close to the surface, less dense, formed from weathering, erosion, and deposition. Metamorphic rock: Rocks found deeper down and formed where pressure and heat are high like where tectonic plates collides. Igneous Rock: Igneous rocks form when molten rock cools and becomes solid. ALL TYPES OF ROCKS CAN EVENTUALLY BE BROKEN BACK DOWN AND TRANSFORMED INTO ONE OF THE OTHER TYPES.SC.7.P.6.2: Identify the patterns within the rock cycle and relate them to surface events (weathering and erosion) and sub-surface events (plate tectonics and mountain building).
11 Explain how we use the law of superposition and radioactive dating to date fossils. The Law of Superposition – says that the youngest rocks are on the top and the oldest rocks are on the bottom.Radioactive dating of fossils: Carbon is one of the basic elements of life. Carbon atoms decay at a constant rate, so scientists use the decay of carbon in life forms to date when these fossils lived.SC.7.P.6.3: Identify current methods for measuring the age of Earth and its parts, including the law of superposition and radioactive dating
12 Explain how the theory of plate tectonics is used to describe how the Earth’s surface is built up and torn down.The theory of Plate Tectonics is based on Wegeners theory of Continental Drift which stated that the continents were once all connected (Pangea). The movement of the tectonic plates caused the continents to separate and move apart. The evidence of what happens at plate boundaries and the formation of new crust helps support this theory. Fossil evidence where organisms of the same species were found on different continents also help support it.SC.7.P.6.4: Explain and give examples of how physical evidence supports scientific theories that Earth has evolved over geologic time due to natural processes.SC.7.P.6.5: Explore the scientific theory of plate tectonics by describing how the movement of Earth's crustal plates causes both slow and rapid changes in Earth's surface, including volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and mountain building.
14 Explain how the convecting mantle causes earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and creates mountains and ocean basins.SC.7.P.6.7: Recognize that heat flow and movement of material within Earth causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and creates mountains and ocean basins.The earth’s mantle is where convection currents happen that provide the energy for tectonic plates to move.
15 Types of BoundariesConvergent boundary: two plates move towards each other – This can cause subduction where one plate slides underneathanother (subduction) and is destroyed or it can slowly form a mountain.
16 Types of BoundariesDivergent boundary: where two plates move away from each other resulting in new crust (ocean basins) being formed.Transform boundary: where two plates slide alongside each other - although crust is neither created or destroyed here, they can get caught and cause earthquakes
17 Day 2: Earth’s Atmosphere and Weather Big Idea 7 Learning Goals: Students will be able toDifferentiate between radiation, conduction, and convection.Explain how the water cycle affects weather patterns and climate.Explain how the jet stream and ocean currents affect local weather.Explain the interactions between the geosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere, and biosphereHow does the Sun’s energy influence weather and climate?Differentiate between weather and climate.Describe how the composition and structure of the atmosphere protects life and insulates the planet.
18 Differentiate between radiation, conduction, and convection Conduction: heat transfer through direct contactConvection: heat transfer from a gas to a gas or a gas to a liquidRadiation: heat transfer through electromagnetic radiation
19 Explain how the water cycle affects weather patterns and climate. The water cycle plays a key role in weather patterns and local climate.For example: Cities near the ocean will have higher humidity levels and higher chances of rain because of this.Locations farther from where evaporation happens will have drier climates.
21 Explain how the jet stream and ocean currents affect local weather. A jet stream forms high in the upper troposphere between two air masses of very different temperature. The greater the temperature difference between the air masses, the faster the wind blows in the jet stream.
22 Explain how the jet stream and ocean currents affect local weather. Varying ocean temperatures affect local atmospheric pressure, which creates regional wind patterns that, in turn, drive oceanic currents that affect surface ocean temperatures.
23 Explain the interactions between the geosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. Atmosphere: Earth’s airGeosphere: Earth’s nonliving structuresBiosphere: Earth’s living organismsHydrosphere: Earth’s watersCryosphere: Earth’s ice massesPlus the Cyosphere which includes all thewater in solid form (ice).
24 How are Earth’s sphere’s connected? Even a small change in one system can change one or more of the other systems.
25 How does the Sun’s energy influence weather and climate? The Earth ‘s spherical shape causes it to be heated unevenly.The equator region receives more direct sunlight (thermal energy)
26 How does the Sun’s energy influence weather and climate? The warmer air at the equator caused by more direct sunlight causes convection currents to form in Earth’s atmosphere.These currents are what drive weather patterns.
27 Differentiate between weather and climate. Weather is the daily atmospheric conditions in an area.Climate is the average weather conditions in an area over a longer period of time.
28 Describe how the composition and structure of the atmosphere protects life and insulates the planet. Our atmosphere does three main things:helps reflect some of the radiation from the Sunholds heat in so that the temperature can sustain lifeHolds in the gases needed for life; CO2, O2, and N