Presentation on theme: "Basic Comma Rules 7 th Grade Language Arts Class."— Presentation transcript:
Basic Comma Rules 7 th Grade Language Arts Class
1. Commas are used to separate words, phrases, or clauses in a series. Mr. Jensen wanted us to bring apples, milk, and bread. (words) Rehearsal will be held before school, during recess, and after school. (phrases) The supervisor wanted to know who had broken into the store, why they had done so, and what had been taken. (clauses)
2. A comma is used after an introductory clause (a clause at the beginning of the sentence that could not stand alone. It is dependant on the rest of the sentence to make sense.) After this PowerPoint is over, you’ll practice commas in your groups.
Many dependent clauses will begin with a subordinate conjunction such as after, although, as, as if, because, before, if, since, unless, until, when, whenever, while, etc. If the dependent clause follows the independent clause, then a comma is not needed between the two clauses.
If their papers have improved, we will raise their scores. We will raise their scores if their papers have improved. As you can see, I have a very graceful cat.
3. A comma is used to set off introductory words, introductory phrases, and introductory prepositional phrases(4+ words or more). All of these introductory elements can simply be considered dependent and, therefore, a comma follows.
Incidentally, I was not late this morning. Hoping that she had enough money to buy the sweater, she approached the register. On top of the shelf, you’ll find a book. However, I’m not sure if it’s yours.
4. A comma is used in a long compound sentence between independent clauses joined by one of the fanboys. He likes math, but he doesn’t do very well. She was tired, yet I’ve never seen her work harder. Note: Do NOT put a comma before the coordinating conjunction if there is not a complete sentence on both sides..
5. Parenthetical statements (words, phrases, or clauses) are set off by commas. They include words of direct address. The quality of the material, however, was beyond question. Mr. Saul is, I think, the smartest man I know. The check, Mr. Lee, is in the mail.
6. Two adjectives describing the same noun should be separated by a comma if the word and could be used between the two adjectives or if they are reversible.
His arrogant, condescending manner annoyed everyone. The following sentence does not contain a comma because the car is not green and dark, but rather dark green. * Everyone envied her dark green car.
7. A nonessential phrase or clause is set off by commas. An essential phrase or clause is NOT set off by commas. The speaker, realizing his mistake, apologized to the chairman. (nonessential) The girl who sits at the back of the room is very bright. (essential)
8. An appositive (a word or phrase that renames the noun) is set off by commas. Nick Van Excel, a player for the Lakers, is a valuable player. The award was given to Jan, Carol’s daughter.
9. Use a comma when it is necessary to make the meaning of a sentence clear. Ever since, our supplies have been stored in a warehouse.
10. Items in address and dates are set off by commas. We moved here from Atlanta, Georgia, three months ago. Mrs. Bitters, the next meeting will be held on Tuesday, August 13, 2003, in Seattle. Note: Do not put a comma between the month and year! * July 2003