2 What is a comma? A comma is a visual pause for the reader. A comma can be used for many reasons.
3 When do you use a comma? To separate items in a series Words in a seriesI went to the store to get milk, eggs, and soda.Phrases in a seriesI need to take my medicine before work, during lunch, and after work.Clauses in a seriesIn our band, Jeff sings, Mike plays the guitar, and Chris plays the drums.To separate two or more adjectives that modify the same nounHe is tall, dark, and handsome.Before conjunctions (FANBOYS) when they join independent clausesFor, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, SoI ate breakfast before school, but I was still hungry before 2nd block.
4 When do you use a comma? (cont’d) Use commas to set off clauses which are nonessentialA nonessential clause is a clause that adds information about the subject that is descriptive, but not necessary.J.D. Salinger, who wrote Catcher in the Rye, is a notorious recluse.To set off participial phrasesA participial phrase is a phrase where a verb is used as an adjective.Jay-Z, knowing that “Dirt Off Your Shoulder” was the crowd favorite, waited until the encore to perform the song.
5 When do you use a comma? (cont’d) Use commas after certain introductory elementsUse after well, yes, no, and why when they begin a sentence.Yes, my favorite team is the Bulls.Well, I like math, but English is by far the best.Use after introductory participial phrases.Driving home from school, I had an epiphany.Use after a long opener that begins with any “ABBI SAW A WUWU”As, before, because, if, since, after, when, although, while, unless, whenever, untilBecause you loaned me money for lunch yesterday, I will loan you some for today.If you are ever lost while driving, pull into a gas station.
6 When do you use a comma? (cont’d) Use commas to set off words of direct address, such as names and titles.David, can you lend me a pencil?- Mr. Anderson, can I turn this in tomorrow?NO!!!!!
7 Other Comma RulesTo set off a direct quotation from the rest of the sentence“Come in,” the boss said.Mary said, “I don’t want to.”Between the day of the month and the year, and, in a sentence, after the yearSteve was born in New York on March 5, 1990, and moved here last year.In the salutation of a personal letterDear Grandma,Sincerely,
8 What is a Semicolon?????A semicolon is a punctuation mark that connects independent clauses when they are not connected by a conjunction (FANBOYS).;
9 When do you use a semicolon? You use a semicolon when you are connecting two independent clauses without a conjunction.The students entered the room; class started when the bell rang.Spring break is a few weeks away; I am going on a trip with my family.
10 When do you use a semicolon? Use a semicolon between independent clauses joined by the following words:AccordinglyHenceHoweverIndeedMoreoverThusThat isBesidesAlsoThereforeStillOtherwiseIn factFor exampleFurthermoreConsequentlySimilarlyInsteadNeverthelessFor instance
11 Examples of Semicolon Use The football team won; however, the team is still in second place in the conference.You have to water the flowers every day; otherwise, they will wilt and die.Rachel loves to listen to Ludacris; in fact, she has all of his albums.