2PREPARING A PRESENTATION Defining the PurposeKnowing the audienceDealing with logisticsKnowing the venueClarifying objectivesFinding MaterialStructuring MaterialWriting the PresentationUsing Audio-Visual AidsRehearsing
3PREPARING YOURSELF Believing in yourself Analyzing Appearance Enhancing Body Image.Improving your VoiceEliminating Tension
4DELIVERING A PRESENTATION Controlling NervesSpeaking ConfidentlyClosing Effectively
5HANDLING AN AUDIENCE Judging the Mood Dealing with Questions Coping with hostilityAssessing your Ability
6TIPS FOR ‘SUCCESSFUL AND EFFECTIVE’ PRESENTATIONS The LLC policyThe Language of the 6 Cs & 4 SsThe ‘BOMBER-B’ effectThe ‘FLICK’ policyThe 4 Pillars of ‘Self Belief’
8The 6 C’s & 4 S’sIn any business transaction, adherence to the 7 C’s &the 4 S’s helps the sender in transmitting a messagewith ease and accuracy.The 6 C’s:Clear : Makes comprehension easier.Conciseness : Saves timeComplete : No ambiguityCorrect : Facts & figures – credibility & confidenceCourteous : Polite - improves relationshipsConvincing : Will be ‘remembered’
14Body LanguageBody language is what the other person sees even before he or she hears a word.It is those messages that continue to be transmitted unconsciously throughout any encounter.A persons body language speaks a message that at times may conflict with his / her words, but correctly interpreted the unspoken message is the more honest.
15Body Language (Cont’d) People will believe what your body sayseven if you are trying to use words to saysomething different.You will make the situation worse if youtry to hide your body language.What does your body say when you tryto manage people?
16Body Language (Cont’d) How well can you “read” the bodylanguage of your boss?What is the body language of successfulexecutives and how can you learn it.
17Observe Unspoken Communication Do this at home :* Watch a TV program with the sound switchedoff. See how much of the story line you canpick up from the context, body language,distance and touch.* Try the same with a news broadcast.* In your daily activities, be aware of the silentmessages people are sending.
18Observe Unspoken Communication (Cont’d) Try to determine the messages your body is sending.Catch a glimpse of yourself in a a window or mirror.- Was your head down ?- Your face grim ?- Were you standing erect with apleasant, interested look on your face ?
19Use Unspoken Communication Context* Dress appropriately to the situation.* Make the most of your physicalappearance through good hairstyling,clean and well pressed clothes.Remember ! You need not be ‘goodlooking’ but you surely need to ‘lookgood’ Cont’d
20Use Unspoken Communication (Cont’d) Body Language* Your facial expression should reflect theemotion being expressed verbally.* As a listener, use your face to show interest. Asa speaker, use your face to reinforce yourstatements.* Make eye contact, but do not stare. Look awaywhen you begin to speak, but look back at theother person as you finish. Hand theconversation back to him / her Cont’d
21Use Unspoken Communication (Cont’d) * Think of your eyes as a part of yourcommunication tools, just as your voice is.* Do not let your posture give a differentmessage than your words. To convey interest inthe speaker, lean forward with your backstraight and your arms open.* Use appropriate gestures. Nod agreement.* Keep an appropriate distance so that the otherperson is comfortable with the space betweenthe two of you.
22Use Unspoken Communication (Cont’d) * Use touch to convey warmth and emotionalsupport as when comforting a bereaved person,but be wary of touching beyond the firmhandshakes in the business world.* When speaking, use a resonant tone andmoderate volume. Vary the pitch and rate ofspeaking.
231. Reading Body Language.“ The most important thing in Communicating is to hear what isn’t being said ”.Reading Body Language teaches you tolisten with your eyes as well as your ears.
24- Facial expressions (Your eyes). Body Language (Contd)This includes :- Posture- Body movement.- Gestures (Your arms)- Facial expressions (Your eyes).and Appearance (Your face, smile, and emotions).- Touch
252. Types of Body Language P osture and gestures. E ye Contact. O rientation.P roximity.L ooks Appearance.E xpressions of Emotion.
26Importance of Good Posture Puts your audience at ease.Helps you personally to stay relaxed.Helps you to stay alert and confident.
27Good Posture - Tips Stand erect, relaxed with weight on both feet. Avoid leaning / standing on one foot.Avoid standing with feet wide apart.
28Movement MOVE TO : Hold Attention. Get rid of Nervousness. Suggest transitions.Increase emphasis through gestures.
343. Using Body Language can use. UNDERSTAND the negative IDENTIFY the positive signs youcan use.UNDERSTAND the negativesigns you may give.BEWARE of giving conflictingsigns.
354. Visual Clues and What They Mean. (General) Behaviour Likely MeaningLack of movement Playing safe.Sitting back “Let me think about it.”Impatient sigh, hands on hips, Aggressive.pursed lips, chin thrust forwardArms or legs crossed Closed to ideas, unreceptive.Jacket buttoned Formal.Jacket unbuttoned Informal.
36Visual Clues (Body)Behaviour Likely Meaning Body : Leaning back Skeptical, unwilling to commit. Body : Leaning back Relaxed, possible with hands behind reservations, no sense head of urgency. Body : Leaning forward Positive interest in topic. Body : Slouching Trying to be unobtrusive, low self esteem.
37Visual Clues (Eyes) Behaviour Likely Meaning Eyes blinking slowly Uncomfortable, not willing to be there.Eyes at top left Quickly evaluating and planning next manouvre – possibly hostile.Eyes at top right Doing mental problem solving, trying to figure something out.Eyes darting Anxious, unconfident, notprepared.
38And more clues (Eyes) Behaviour Likely Meaning Eyes narrowed Evaluating, assessing.Eyes staring Not paying attention, day dreaming .Eyes wide Interested, making an important point.Eyes looking over tops Evaluating, assessing.of glasses
39Visual Clues (Hands) Behaviour Likely Meaning Hands clasped in front Possibly conservative, closed mind.Hands on hips / hip jut Confident, bordering on arrogant – issuing a challenge.Hands open, palms down Demanding – showing control.Hands open, palms up Asking, wanting, needing –showing vulnerability.Hands folded in lap / stomach Protective.Hands on desk “Lets do business”.
40Visual Clues (Head and Smile) Behaviour Likely MeaningHead straight on Confident.Head tilted back Arrogant, cocky.Head tilted down Shy, ashamed or lying.Head cocked to one side Listening with interest.Smile with eyes crinkled Joyful, expressing pleasure.Smile without eyes crinkled Trying to gain approval.
41Visual Clues (Contd) * Be aware of facial expressions like : Rolling your eyes, making faces, frowning etc.* Put a smile in your face and voice.* Lack of eye contact conveys conflicting feelings / incomplete communication.* Look person in the eye. It depicts interest and self confidence.
42Visual Clues (Contd)Shifting weight from one foot to another, avoiding eye contact, head down, stooping shoulders, nervous movements and closed body and hand gestures – non aggressive.Cocking head – showing interest.
44“ To know how to refuse is as important as to know how toconsent ”.
45Assertiveness. Meaning. - Confidence translated into Action. - Not bullying nor brow beating, butsimply allowing convictions tocarry conversation.Honesty combined with a non-confrontationalmanner makes ASSERTIVENESS the mostvaluable tool in the managerial kit.
46Assertiveness ! ! What it comprises. Eye contact.Body posture.Distance.Gestures.Facial expression and tone of voice.Fluency.Timing.Listening.Content.
47How to Assert ? Project confident Body Language. Speak with authority. - Lean towards person you are influencing.- Get into his space.- Don’t slouch.- Make and maintain eye contact.- If you sit, don’t fidgit; if you stand, don’t pace.Speak with authority.- Assertive people enunciate.- Speak clearly. Address someone in particular,rather than the air.
48How to Assert ? (Contd) Take ownership of issues. - Use ‘I’ statements.- Let people know how you feel about issues.- Stick to the point and end on a strong note.- Don’t dwindle and say “and so on” or “etc, etc”.Confirm understandings.- Build commitment to action. (Can you see why I’mupset ?”, “Do you agree with my point ?”)
49How to Assert ? (Contd) Present your ideas with confidence. Focus. - Let your confidence show.- Don’t be afraid to defend the processes you’ve set out.- Don’t feel guilty about saying no.- Don’t be stubborn.- Incorporate any ‘improvement’ to your plan ifoffered.Focus.- Don’t get sidetracked.- Restate your concern, if conversation goes around incircles.
50How to Assert ? (Contd)Confine discussion to specific facts and have supporting documentation at hand.Do not generalise about issues.- Solve individual problems to your satisfaction.- Do not make generalised accusations about asubordinates incompetence.Maintain your authority- Never begin with an apology or an accusation.- Balance the ‘rights’ and ‘responsibilities’, equally.- Do not use authority to silence the other personprematurely. Always AGREE TO DISAGREE.-
51Where you need to be really assertive. Responding assertively to a marriage partner.Dealing with colleagues at work more assertively.Returning faulty goods to a shop or unsatisfactory food in a restaurant.Not responding aggressively in a situation.Being able to speak in front of a group of people or deliver a short speech.