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Presentation on theme: "PRESENTATION SKILLS."— Presentation transcript:


Defining the Purpose Knowing the audience Dealing with logistics Knowing the venue Clarifying objectives Finding Material Structuring Material Writing the Presentation Using Audio-Visual Aids Rehearsing

3 PREPARING YOURSELF Believing in yourself Analyzing Appearance
Enhancing Body Image. Improving your Voice Eliminating Tension

Controlling Nerves Speaking Confidently Closing Effectively

5 HANDLING AN AUDIENCE Judging the Mood Dealing with Questions
Coping with hostility Assessing your Ability

The LLC policy The Language of the 6 Cs & 4 Ss The ‘BOMBER-B’ effect The ‘FLICK’ policy The 4 Pillars of ‘Self Belief’

7 ‘LLC’ L : Listen L : Learn C : Communicate

8 The 6 C’s & 4 S’s In any business transaction, adherence to the 7 C’s & the 4 S’s helps the sender in transmitting a message with ease and accuracy. The 6 C’s: Clear : Makes comprehension easier. Conciseness : Saves time Complete : No ambiguity Correct : Facts & figures – credibility & confidence Courteous : Polite - improves relationships Convincing : Will be ‘remembered’

9 The 4 S’s Shortness : Economizes Simplicity : Impresses
Strength : Convinces Sincerity : Appeals

10 ‘BOMBER – B’ (This will make your presentation ‘fly’)
B ang ! O pening ! M essage ! B ridge ! E xamples ! R ecap !

11 The ‘FLICK’ Policy Visuals - Practical Guidelines
F rame L arge I mages C olour K iss

12 Body Language

13 Sadness __ __ ____ ______ ________ __ _____ ________

14 Body Language Body language is what the other person sees even before he or she hears a word. It is those messages that continue to be transmitted unconsciously throughout any encounter. A persons body language speaks a message that at times may conflict with his / her words, but correctly interpreted the unspoken message is the more honest.

15 Body Language (Cont’d)
People will believe what your body says even if you are trying to use words to say something different. You will make the situation worse if you try to hide your body language. What does your body say when you try to manage people?

16 Body Language (Cont’d)
How well can you “read” the body language of your boss? What is the body language of successful executives and how can you learn it.

17 Observe Unspoken Communication
Do this at home : * Watch a TV program with the sound switched off. See how much of the story line you can pick up from the context, body language, distance and touch. * Try the same with a news broadcast. * In your daily activities, be aware of the silent messages people are sending.

18 Observe Unspoken Communication (Cont’d)
Try to determine the messages your body is sending. Catch a glimpse of yourself in a a window or mirror. - Was your head down ? - Your face grim ? - Were you standing erect with a pleasant, interested look on your face ?

19 Use Unspoken Communication
Context * Dress appropriately to the situation. * Make the most of your physical appearance through good hairstyling, clean and well pressed clothes. Remember ! You need not be ‘good looking’ but you surely need to ‘look good’ Cont’d

20 Use Unspoken Communication (Cont’d)
Body Language * Your facial expression should reflect the emotion being expressed verbally. * As a listener, use your face to show interest. As a speaker, use your face to reinforce your statements. * Make eye contact, but do not stare. Look away when you begin to speak, but look back at the other person as you finish. Hand the conversation back to him / her Cont’d

21 Use Unspoken Communication (Cont’d)
* Think of your eyes as a part of your communication tools, just as your voice is. * Do not let your posture give a different message than your words. To convey interest in the speaker, lean forward with your back straight and your arms open. * Use appropriate gestures. Nod agreement. * Keep an appropriate distance so that the other person is comfortable with the space between the two of you.

22 Use Unspoken Communication (Cont’d)
* Use touch to convey warmth and emotional support as when comforting a bereaved person, but be wary of touching beyond the firm handshakes in the business world. * When speaking, use a resonant tone and moderate volume. Vary the pitch and rate of speaking.

23 1. Reading Body Language. “ The most important thing in Communicating is to hear what isn’t being said ”. Reading Body Language teaches you to listen with your eyes as well as your ears.

24 - Facial expressions (Your eyes).
Body Language (Contd) This includes : - Posture - Body movement. - Gestures (Your arms) - Facial expressions (Your eyes). and Appearance (Your face, smile, and emotions). - Touch

25 2. Types of Body Language P osture and gestures. E ye Contact.
O rientation. P roximity. L ooks Appearance. E xpressions of Emotion.

26 Importance of Good Posture
Puts your audience at ease. Helps you personally to stay relaxed. Helps you to stay alert and confident.

27 Good Posture - Tips Stand erect, relaxed with weight on both feet.
Avoid leaning / standing on one foot. Avoid standing with feet wide apart.

28 Movement MOVE TO : Hold Attention. Get rid of Nervousness.
Suggest transitions. Increase emphasis through gestures.

29 Gestures To Emphasise. To Point. To Reject. To Describe.

30 Gestures - Suggestions
Vary gestures. Use appropriate gestures. Avoid continuous gestures. Match timing of gesture with thought expressed.

31 Mannerisms to Avoid Swaying from side to side, backwards and forwards.
Fiddling with markers, pointers etc. Placing hands in pockets. Meaningless repetitive gestures. Pacing to and fro. Waving arms.

32 Light House Techniques
Sweep your audience with your eyes staying only seconds on each person. Avoid looking at one member or at a fixed point on the wall / floor / ceiling.

33 Facial Expressions / Appearance
Smile - It improves your face value. Be enthusiastic. Show sincerity. Dress appropriately.

34 3. Using Body Language can use. UNDERSTAND the negative
IDENTIFY the positive signs you can use. UNDERSTAND the negative signs you may give. BEWARE of giving conflicting signs.

35 4. Visual Clues and What They Mean. (General)
Behaviour Likely Meaning Lack of movement Playing safe. Sitting back “Let me think about it.” Impatient sigh, hands on hips, Aggressive. pursed lips, chin thrust forward Arms or legs crossed Closed to ideas, unreceptive. Jacket buttoned Formal. Jacket unbuttoned Informal.

36 Visual Clues (Body) Behaviour Likely Meaning Body : Leaning back Skeptical, unwilling to commit. Body : Leaning back Relaxed, possible with hands behind reservations, no sense head of urgency. Body : Leaning forward Positive interest in topic. Body : Slouching Trying to be unobtrusive, low self esteem.

37 Visual Clues (Eyes) Behaviour Likely Meaning
Eyes blinking slowly Uncomfortable, not willing to be there. Eyes at top left Quickly evaluating and planning next manouvre – possibly hostile. Eyes at top right Doing mental problem solving, trying to figure something out. Eyes darting Anxious, unconfident, not prepared.

38 And more clues (Eyes) Behaviour Likely Meaning
Eyes narrowed Evaluating, assessing. Eyes staring Not paying attention, day dreaming . Eyes wide Interested, making an important point. Eyes looking over tops Evaluating, assessing. of glasses

39 Visual Clues (Hands) Behaviour Likely Meaning
Hands clasped in front Possibly conservative, closed mind. Hands on hips / hip jut Confident, bordering on arrogant – issuing a challenge. Hands open, palms down Demanding – showing control. Hands open, palms up Asking, wanting, needing – showing vulnerability. Hands folded in lap / stomach Protective. Hands on desk “Lets do business”.

40 Visual Clues (Head and Smile)
Behaviour Likely Meaning Head straight on Confident. Head tilted back Arrogant, cocky. Head tilted down Shy, ashamed or lying. Head cocked to one side Listening with interest. Smile with eyes crinkled Joyful, expressing pleasure. Smile without eyes crinkled Trying to gain approval.

41 Visual Clues (Contd) * Be aware of facial expressions like :
Rolling your eyes, making faces, frowning etc. * Put a smile in your face and voice. * Lack of eye contact conveys conflicting feelings / incomplete communication. * Look person in the eye. It depicts interest and self confidence.

42 Visual Clues (Contd) Shifting weight from one foot to another, avoiding eye contact, head down, stooping shoulders, nervous movements and closed body and hand gestures – non aggressive. Cocking head – showing interest.

43 Assertiveness

44 “ To know how to refuse is as
important as to know how to consent ”.

45 Assertiveness. Meaning. - Confidence translated into Action.
- Not bullying nor brow beating, but simply allowing convictions to carry conversation. Honesty combined with a non-confrontational manner makes ASSERTIVENESS the most valuable tool in the managerial kit.

46 Assertiveness ! ! What it comprises.
Eye contact. Body posture. Distance. Gestures. Facial expression and tone of voice. Fluency. Timing. Listening. Content.

47 How to Assert ? Project confident Body Language. Speak with authority.
- Lean towards person you are influencing. - Get into his space. - Don’t slouch. - Make and maintain eye contact. - If you sit, don’t fidgit; if you stand, don’t pace. Speak with authority. - Assertive people enunciate. - Speak clearly. Address someone in particular, rather than the air.

48 How to Assert ? (Contd) Take ownership of issues.
- Use ‘I’ statements. - Let people know how you feel about issues. - Stick to the point and end on a strong note. - Don’t dwindle and say “and so on” or “etc, etc”. Confirm understandings. - Build commitment to action. (Can you see why I’m upset ?”, “Do you agree with my point ?”)

49 How to Assert ? (Contd) Present your ideas with confidence. Focus.
- Let your confidence show. - Don’t be afraid to defend the processes you’ve set out. - Don’t feel guilty about saying no. - Don’t be stubborn. - Incorporate any ‘improvement’ to your plan if offered. Focus. - Don’t get sidetracked. - Restate your concern, if conversation goes around in circles.

50 How to Assert ? (Contd) Confine discussion to specific facts and have supporting documentation at hand. Do not generalise about issues. - Solve individual problems to your satisfaction. - Do not make generalised accusations about a subordinates incompetence. Maintain your authority - Never begin with an apology or an accusation. - Balance the ‘rights’ and ‘responsibilities’, equally. - Do not use authority to silence the other person prematurely. Always AGREE TO DISAGREE. -

51 Where you need to be really assertive.
Responding assertively to a marriage partner. Dealing with colleagues at work more assertively. Returning faulty goods to a shop or unsatisfactory food in a restaurant. Not responding aggressively in a situation. Being able to speak in front of a group of people or deliver a short speech.



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