2 Segregation Progressivism ≠ end of segregation In the South Whites intimidated African AmericansEven killed them (lynching)Blacks could not use public facilitates that Whites could useLibraries, schools, restaurants, water fountains to name just a FEWJim Crow Era (“separate but equal”)
3 Other Discrimination Literacy tests for voting Poll taxes Lack of educational opportunitiesAll of this we will cover in-depth during our Civil Rights unit at the end of the year
4 Why was the enrollment of Blacks in schools practically non-existent in 1862? What is one thing that always remains the same on the graph?
7 14th Amendment and Plessy v. Ferguson Remember the 14th amendment? What did it say?Equal protection under the law for U.S. citizens (no state can make a law denying equal protection)Well, then why was it legal to separate blacks?
8 Plessy v. Ferguson 1896Plessy v. Ferguson = Supreme Court said African Americans were separate but equal1892New OrleansHomer Plessy, an African American tried to board a whites-only railroad car and was arrestedPlessy challenged his arrest, citing it violated the 14th AmendmentIt went the whole way to the Supreme Crt
9 Plessy results 1896Supreme Court said African Americans were equal under the law per the 14th amend.But “separate” treatment of them was constitutionalUshered in start of Jim Crow EraSeparate but equal doctrine was not over-turned until 1950s!!Anyone know the famous case that over-turned it?
10 W.E.B. DuBoisAround this time men like DuBois started fighting Jim Crow laws and their impact on African AmericansFounded NAACP (National Assoc. for the Advancement of Colored People)Education was of great importance to himHowever, believed education was meaningless without equality under the lawProponent of a classic liberal arts educations for African Americas
11 Booker T. WashingtonUnlike DuBois, he believed education played the largest role in African American successEquality = secondary roleProponent of vocational educationHe accepted social separation as long as African Americans had access to educational and vocational opportunities
12 The Great MigrationMovement of ~ 6 million African Americans out of SouthMoved to Northeast, West, and Mid-West