Presentation on theme: "The United States from 1877 to 1914 Progressivism: For whites only Many progressives were racists Supported progressive reforms at the same time that they."— Presentation transcript:
The United States from 1877 to 1914 Progressivism: For whites only Many progressives were racists Supported progressive reforms at the same time that they supported Jim Crow laws Some claimed they supported Jim Crow segregation as the only realistic means to protect black people from white violence Supported eugenics sterilization laws Supported city commission and “at large” voting systems to weaken immigrant votes
The United States from 1877 to 1914 Ways to stop the voting Poll taxes, 1 or 2 dollars, paid in advance of the election No assistants allowed for illiterate voters Literacy tests requiring elaborate recitation of state constitutions Grandfather clauses (did your grandfather vote before the Civil War?)
The United States from 1877 to 1914 Race riot: Wilmington, North Carolina, 1898
The United States from 1877 to 1914 Disenfranchisement in the South (by percentage of adult male population eligible to vote) 187619001912 Alabama72%38%22% Georgia63%22%18% Louisiana74%20%18% Mississippi80%18%17% South Carolina 100%20%17%
The United States from 1877 to 1914 Booker T. Washington Born in Virginia just before the Civil War 1881 founded the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute
The United States from 1877 to 1914 Race riot: Atlanta, Georgia, 1906 25 blacks killed 1 white killed 4 blacks beaten to death
The United States from 1877 to 1914 DuBois’ three questions for Booker T. Washington, 1903 How can blacks advance themselves economically if they have no political power? How can blacks have pride in themselves if they are second class citizens? How can blacks maintain good common schools without teachers trained in colleges and universities?
The United States from 1877 to 1914 Ida Wells Barnett, 1862-1931
The United States from 1877 to 1914 Race riot: Springfield, Illinois, 1908 4000 national guard troops brought in to stop the riot NAACP founded a year later
The United States from 1877 to 1914 Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) New Orleans black community sends Homer Plessy to test Louisiana train segregation law Supreme Court rules seven to one to uphold the “Separate Car Act” as long as there were equal accommodations for everyone Harlan’s lone dissent: “The arbitrary separation of citizens on the basis of race... Is a badge of servitude wholly inconsistent with the civil freedom and equality before the law... “
The United States from 1877 to 1914 Monroe Trotter, Fredrick McGhee, and the “Trotter group”
The United States from 1877 to 1914 The Niagara Movement meeting of 1905 and public concern over the Springfield riot of 1908 resulted in the founding of the NAACP in 1909. Niagara civil rights meeting of 1905
The United States from 1877 to 1914 Themes of The Souls of Black Folk (1903) Challenge to Booker T. Washington Challenge to the William Dunning School of Reconstruction at Columbia University “The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line.” Argument that Black people possess a “double consciousness” (both American and Black) Call for a “talented tenth” to come forward Questions the extent to which self-help can further the African-America community. Questions the extent to which commercial ambitions can help the black community
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