Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Scientific Nomenclature Hendrik Segers Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences Hue University, Vietnam January 2009."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Scientific Nomenclature Hendrik Segers Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences Hue University, Vietnam January 2009
What nomenclature? A set of mandatory rules and voluntary recommendations that determine the structure and formation of names of organisms, for use in scientific communication.
“The objects of the Code are to promote stability and universability in the scientific names of animals and to ensure that the name of each taxon is unique and distinct. All its provisions and recommendations are subservient to those ends and none restricts the freedom of taxonomic thought or actions” (ICZN 1999:2) Fundamental aim of nomenclature: avoid a Tower of Babel Why nomenclature? Need for universal codes!
Nomenclature codes McNeill., et al. (eds), International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code). Regnum Vegetabile 146. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG. ISBN Trehane, P., et al. (eds) International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. Adapted by the International Committee for the Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants of the I.U.B.S. Regn. Veget Sneath, P.H.A., et al. (eds), International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Washington (+ : Skerman, V.D.B. et al., Approved Lists of Bacterial Names). International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 4 th edition. Adopted by the I.U.B.S. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London
History of zoological nomenclature 1758Formal starting point = 10th Edition of Linnaeus’s Systema Naturae (also Clerck’s Aranei Svecici) 1842Strickland Code (botany and zoology) 1889First ICZ meeting (Paris) ; tentative adoption of a set of rules 1901Fifth ICZ meeting (Berlin) ; “Rules of Zoological Nomenclature”; published as Règles Internationales de la Nomenclature Zoologique (French, English & German) 1961First edition of the Code of Zoological Nomenclature 1964Second edition 1985Third edition 1988Launch of fourth edition project 1995Draft of fourth edition released by Secretariat 1999 Fourth edition (current edition) Takes effect from 1 January Discussion on registration of names re-opened; “zoobank”, Launch of fifth edition project
Correct application of nomenclatural codes (e.g., correction of errors; homonyms;…) Increased scientific understanding (e.g., discoveries; changes in species concept (s.l.) and phylogenetic understanding) Why do names change?
Correct application of nomenclatural codes (e.g., correction of errors; homonyms;…) Increased scientific understanding (e.g., discoveries; changes in species concept (s.l.) and phylogenetic understanding) Why do names change? All changes are governed by legalistic, scientifically neutral conventions: the codes of nomenclature E.g.: the ICZN consists of: Preamble 90 Articles, grouped in 18 chapters One or more mandatory provisions Non-mandatory recommendations Examples Glossary
Ruling principles Nomenclature = naming tool Typification The taxonomic identity of a name is determined by that of its type
Art Each nominal taxon in the family, genus or species groups has actually or potentially a name-bearing type. The fixation of the name bearing type of a nominal taxon provides the objective standard of reference for the application of the name it bears The valid name from a taxon is determined only from the name- bearing type(s) Objectivity through typification is continuous through the hierarchy of names, from species to family group Name-bearing types (generally) are stable and provide objective continuity in the application of names (ICZN) => Identity of a name relies only on its type, not on its description or diagnosis Principle of Typification
Types of name-bearing types (in the species group) Original designation (Fixed in the original publication) Subsequent designation (Not fixed in the original publication) Holotype: the single specimen upon which a new species-group taxon is based in the original publication (see also isotype) Paratypes : remaining specimens of the original type series (see also allotype) Syntypes: specimens of a type series that collectively constitute the name- bearing type Hapantotype : (special case) Lectotype: a syntype designated as the single-name bearing type specimen Paralectotypes : each specimen of the former syntype series remaining after lectotype designation (see also isolectotype) Neotype: the single specimen designated as the name-bearing type when no name-bearing type specimen is believed to exist (anymore) Principle of Typification
How does it work? Syntypes Type localities New Species A Species B
How does it work? Holotype + Paratypes Type locality New Species A Species B
How does it work? Lectotype + paralectotype Type localities Species A Species B
How does it work? Lectotype + paralectotype Type localities Species A Species B
Terms not regulated by the Codes Allotype: a designated specimen of opposite sex of the holotype Cotype : a term formerly used for either syntype or paratype Genotype: a term formerly used to designate the type species of a genus (generotype) Topotype : a specimen originating from the type locality or localities of the species or subspecies to which it is thought to belong, whether or not the specimen is part of the type series (see also topotypical specimen) Some peculiar cases: Cleptotype, Iconotype, … Type of a family name = genus Type of a genus = species Principle of Typification
Ruling principles Nomenclature = naming tool Typification Principle of Synonymy 1 taxon should only have 1 valid name
Synonyms… Synonyms: 2 or more names = 1 taxon –Nomenclatural (= objective, homotypic) synonyms –Taxonomic (= subjective, heterotypic) synonyms
Synonyms… Synonyms: 2 or more names = 1 taxon –Nomenclatural (= objective, homotypic) synonyms –Taxonomic (= subjective, heterotypic) synonyms Lecane ludwigii (Eckstein, 1883) or Lecane stokesi (Pell, 1890) or Lecane ohioensis (Herrick, 1885) ?
Ruling principles Nomenclature = naming tool Typification Principle of Synonymy Principle of Homonymy 1 name can apply to only 1 taxon (but see independance of codes)
… and Homonyms Lecane ornata (Harring & Myers, 1926) Lecane ornata (Daday, 1897) (syn. of L. ludwigii (Eckstein, 1883)) Problem: name for L. ornata (Harring & Myers, 1926) non (Daday, 1897)?
Ruling principles Nomenclature = naming tool Typification Principle of Synonymy Principle of Homonymy Principle of Priority “the oldest fool is always right”
… and Homonyms Argus Bohadsch, 1761(gastropod); Argus Scopoli, 1763 (butterfly); Argus Scopoli, 1777 (butterfly); Argus Poli, 1791 (mollusk); Argus Temminck, 1807 (bird); Argus Lamarck, 1817 (hesperid); Argus Boisduval, 1832 (lycaenid); Argus Walckenaer, 1836 (arachnid); Argus Gray, 1847(mollusk); Argus Gerhard, 1850 (lycaenid)) Principle of Priority: Argus Bohadsch, 1761 is the only valid name
… and Homonyms Lecane ornata (Harring & Myers, 1926) Lecane ornata (Daday, 1897) (syn. of L. ludwigii (Eckstein, 1883)) Problem: name for L. ornata (Harring & Myers, 1926) non (Daday, 1897)? No “Oldest fool” available! Nomen novum required: Lecane myersi
Principle of Priority Can Cause Problems ! The Commission can intervene (nomina rejicienda, conservanda)
Ruling principles Nomenclature = naming tool Typification Principle of Synonymy Principle of Homonymy Principle of Priority Principle of binominal nomenclature Names of taxa above species: uninominal: e.g., Hominidae, Homo Names of species: binominal: e.g., Homo sapiens
Monostyla closterocerca Schmarda, 1853 What’s in a name? With subgenus name: Lecane (Monostyla) closterocerca (Schmarda, 1853) Edmondson, 1935 Short: Lecane (M.) closterocerca (Shmarda, 1853) Or: L. closterocerca new combination: Lecane closterocerca (Schmarda, 1853) Edmondson, 1935 With subspecies name: trinomen Lecane (Monostyla) closterocerca amazonica Koste, 1972 Or: L. closterocerca amazonica
Scientific Names are Latin Rules of Latin grammar apply Agreement in gender Mastigocerca capucina Wierzejski & Zacharias, 1893 Rattulus capucinus : Jennings, 1903 Trichocerca capucina (Wierzejski & Zacharias, 1893) Harring, 1913
Formation of Scientific Names Formation of species names: -After features: adjectives e.g.: -Lepadella minuta -Scaridium grande -S. longicaudum -Brachionus bidentatus -Keratella taurocephala
Formation of Scientific Names Formation of species names: -After features: adjectives -After other species: noun in apposition, adjective e.g., Trichocerca tigris, T. rattus, T. cavia, T. mus, T. musculus, T. porcellus, T. orca. also: Seison nebaliae.
Formation of Scientific Names Formation of species names: -After features: adjectives -After other species: noun in apposition, adjective -After people: noun in genitive case one man: Trichodorus borgoniei one woman: T. catharinae several man/woman: L. gallagherorum several woman: stem + arum
Formation of Scientific Names Formation of species names: -After features: adjectives -After other species: noun in apposition, adjective -After people: noun in genitive case -After places: adjectival toponym e.g., Trichodorus lusitanicus Paratrichodorus delhiensis
Formation of Scientific Names Formation of species names: no diacritic or other marks, ligature, apostrophes, etc…: -Trichocerca dixon-nutalli becomes T. dixonnutalli; -Dicranophorus lütkeni becomes D. luetkeni; -Filinia novaezaelandiae; -(ñ becomes n, ø becomes o, …) But - Zygiella x-notata
Formal requirements in ICZN (1) Name or nomenclatural act must be Published;
Formal requirements in ICZN (1) Name or nomenclatural act must be Published; Scientific names must be spelled using the 26 letters of the Latin Alphabet;
Formal requirements in ICZN (1) Name or nomenclatural act must be Published; Scientific names must be spelled using the 26 letters of the Latin Alphabet; Derivation: a name may be derived from any language, or even an arbitrary combination of letters if this is formed to be used as a word (not cbafdg); => lots of freedom allowed!
Fun with Latin: Stupidogobius Aurich, 1938 (stupid fish) Localities: Panama canalia Marsh, 1993 (braconid) Belgica antarctica (chironomid) Mexico (beetle and virus) Texas (pentatomid and virus) Neotiglossa (Texas) californica Bliven, 1958 Mythology: Zeus Linnaeus, 1758 (fish) Kali Lloyd, 1909 (fish) Satan Hubbs & Bailey, 1947 (fish),… More examples….
Not another one… Cyclocephala nodanotherwon Ratcliffe (scarabid) Ochisme, Polychisme, Dolichisme, Peggichisme Kirkaldi, 1904 Iyaiyai Evenhuis, 1994 Agra vation Erwin, 1983 Notnops, Taintnops, and Tisentnops Platnick, 1994 (spiders originally in genus Nops MacLeay, 1839 Persons (“honorifics”): Cartwrightia cartwrighti Cartwright, 1967 (scarab) Hoia hoi (parasitic copepod), after Ju-Shey Ho Leonardo davincii Bleszynski, 1965 (pyralid butterfly) But also (“horrorifics”): Dyaria Neumoegen, 1893 (liparid butterfly) after Mr. Dyar. Even more examples….
Formal requirements in ICZN (2) New requirements for species-group names published after 1999: –Explicit indication of name as intentionally new (n. sp., gen. nov., nom. nov.,…) –Fixation of name-bearing types explicit designation & deposition
The different codes: a comparison 1)The codes have different starting dates and works Botanical : Species Plantarum : Linnaeus, Zoological : Systema Naturae : Linnaeus, 1758; Araneae swecici Clerck, 1757,… Bacteriologial : January 1, 1980 (older names only when included in list of approved names)
1)The codes have different starting dates and works 2)The codes are independent => inter-code homonyms are possible, allowed, and common The different codes: a comparison Lactarius nonfungus Nolf & Bajpai 1992: fish Lactarius nonpiscis Verbeken 1996: fungus
Inter-Code Generic homonyms Botanical genus names homonyms in Zool. record Total 64,4198,784 (13.6%) in common use 28,0413,554 (12.7%) Bacteriologic al genus names Homonyms in Zool. Record Homonyms in ING (Botanical) Homonyms in both Total (6.8%)29 (3.9%)15 in common use (6.9%)27 (3.9%)14
Poria cocos: Coleoptera and Fungus; Pieris japonica: butterfly and plant; Culcita novaeguineae: seastar, and Culcita novae-guineae: fern Examples of genus + species homonoms:
Principle of co-ordination: Names established at any rank within the F/G/S groups are deemed established at any rank within the group –Family-group: Super-,Family, sub-, Tribus, sub- –Genus-group: Genus, sub- –Species-group: Species, sub- Zoology only The different codes: a comparison
Principle of co-ordination Tautonyms (Bison bison, Glis glis, Mops mops...) allowed in zoology; The different codes: a comparison
Principle of co-ordination Tautonyms Latin diagnosis required in botanical nomenclature The different codes: a comparison
Principle of co-ordination Tautonyms Latin diagnosis Application & different standardised endings The different codes: a comparison
Interesting websites International Code of Botanical Nomenclature : International Commission and Code on Zoological Nomenclature : Nomenclator Zoologicus (347,000 zoological genus- and subgenus names from 1758 to 1994: GBIF (www.gbif.org), Catalogue of Life ( Zoobank (www.zoobank.org), Universal Biological Indexer and Organizer (uBio: ERMS, WoRMS, Fishbase, FaunaEuropaea (www.faunaeur.org),www.faunaeur.org Encyclopedia of Life, Speciesbase,…… Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG: BioNET International (http://www.bionet-intl.org/opencms/opencms/index1.jsp)http://www.bionet-intl.org/opencms/opencms/index1.jsp Global Taxonomy Initiative (http://www.biodiv.org/programmes/cross-cutting/taxonomy/)http://www.biodiv.org/programmes/cross-cutting/taxonomy/
Games with letters/statistics: Aa Baker, 1940 (mollusk) Aaadonta Solem, 1976 (endodontoid slug) Cavaticovelia aaa Gagne, 1975 (Hawaiian bug) Aragara Walker, 1860 (fly; longest palindrome) Ia io Thomas, 1902 (bat; shortest binomen) Gammaracanthuskytodermogammarus loricatobaicalensis Dybowski, 1926 (amphipod; the longest binomen) Zyzzyxdonta Solem, 1976 (endodontoid slug, with opposite features of Aaadonta) Zyzzyzus Stechow, 1921 (Coelenterata) … and many, many more: Did I mention these ones?