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Hendrik Segers 1 & Yves Samyn 2 1 Belgian Platform Biodiversity 2 Belgian Focal Point for the GTI Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences Vautierstraat.

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Presentation on theme: "Hendrik Segers 1 & Yves Samyn 2 1 Belgian Platform Biodiversity 2 Belgian Focal Point for the GTI Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences Vautierstraat."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hendrik Segers 1 & Yves Samyn 2 1 Belgian Platform Biodiversity 2 Belgian Focal Point for the GTI Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences Vautierstraat 29 B-1000 BRUSSELS (Belgium) Introduction to Scientific Nomenclature

2 Living organisms are grouped: Any group of organism = taxon (taxa) Taxa are arranged in a series of levels (taxonomic hierarchy) Levels of taxonomic hierarchy have different names (taxonomic ranks; e.g. genus, family, order, class, phylum) Taxa at the same level belong to the same taxonomic category The Codes of Nomenclature are the tools used to name taxa, and to determine which of alternatives is the correct one. Background observations and definitions

3 “The objects of the Code are to promote stability and universability in the scientific names of animals and to ensure that the name of each taxon is unique and distinct. All its provisions and recommendations are subservient to those ends and none restricts the freedom of taxonomic thought or actions” (ICZN 1999:2) Fundamental aim of nomenclature: avoid a Tower of Babel Why nomenclature?

4 Taxa have always been named and classified (e.g. Greek and Roman naturalists; medieval herbalists; folk taxonomists: vernacular names) Pre-Linnaean naturalists: names in Latin nomina specifica; binominal, trinominal or even polynominal names (e.g. Iris perpusilla saxatilis Norbonensis a caulis ferme) names inconsistent and often paragraphs long (diagnosis, description, identification purposes) Linnaeus’ 18th century taxonomic system [cf. Species plantarum (1753) and Systema naturae (1758)] nomina trivialia; always binominal in structure diagnostic style Need for universal codes became prominent History of scientific nomenclature

5 Nomenclature codes Greuter, W., et al. (eds), International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (St Louis Code). Regnum Vegetabile 138. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein. ISBN Trehane, P., et al. (eds) International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. Adapted by the International Committee for the Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants of the I.U.B.S. Regn. Veget Sneath, P.H.A., et al. (eds), International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Washington (+ : Skerman, V.D.B. et al., Approved Lists of Bacterial Names). International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 4 th edition. Adopted by the I.U.B.S. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London.

6 1758Formal starting point = 10th Edition of Linnaeus’s Systema Naturae (also Clerck’s Aranei Svecici) 1842Strickland Code (botany and zoology) 1889First ICZ meeting (Paris) ; tentative adoption of a set of rules 1901Fifth ICZ meeting (Berlin) ; “Rules of Zoological Nomenclature”; published as Règles Internationales de la Nomenclature Zoologique (French, English & German) 1961First edition of the Code of Zoological Nomenclature 1964Second edition 1985Third edition (glossary added; no more discrimination between French and English) 1988Launch of fourth edition project 1995Draft of fourth edition released by Secretariat Distribution of hard copies Discussion forum on internet New concepts and provisions published in Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 1999Fourth edition (current edition) Takes effect from 1 January 2000 Cladists already perceive it as too prescriptive (taxa and their names forced in arbitrary ranks of Linnean hierarchy) and too permissive (applies also to non- monophyletic groups) History of zoological nomenclature

7 Correct application of nomenclatural codes (e.g., correction of errors; homonyms;…) Increased scientific understanding (e.g., discoveries; changes in species concept (s.l.) and phylogenetic understanding) Why do names change?

8 Correct application of nomenclatural codes (e.g., correction of errors; homonyms;…) Increased scientific understanding (e.g., discoveries; changes in species concept (s.l.) and phylogenetic understanding) All changes are governed by legalistic, scientifically neutral conventions: the codes of nomenclature E.g.: the ICZN (1999; consists of: Preamble 90 Articles, grouped in 18 chapters One or more mandatory provisions Non-mandatory recommendations Examples Glossary Why do names change?

9 Ruling principles Nomenclature = naming tool Nomenclature only follows taxonomy

10 Ruling principles Nomenclature = naming tool Typification The taxonomic identity of a name is determined by that of its type

11 Art Each nominal taxon in the family, genus or species groups has actually or potentially a name-bearing type. The fixation of the name bearing type of a nominal taxon provides the objective standard of reference for the application of the name it bears The valid name from a taxon is determined only from the name-bearing type(s) Objectivity through typification is continuous through the hierarchy of names, from species to family group Name-bearing types (generally) are stable and provide objective continuity in the application of names (ICZN) => Identity of a name relies only on its type, not on its description or diagnosis Principle of Typification

12 Ruling principles Nomenclature = naming tool Typification Principle of Synonymy 1 taxon should only have 1 name

13 Ruling principles Nomenclature = naming tool Typification Principle of Synonymy Principle of Homonymy 1 name can apply to only 1 taxon (but see independance of codes)

14 Ruling principles Nomenclature = naming tool Typification Principle of Synonymy Principle of Homonymy Principle of Priority “the oldest fool is always right”

15 Principle of bionominal nomenclature Names of taxa above species: uninominal: e.g., Hominidae, Homo Names of species: binominal: e.g., Homo sapiens

16 Monostyla closterocerca Schmarda, 1853 What’s in a name? Species name: binomen

17 Lecane (Monostyla) closterocerca (Schmarda, 1853) Edmondson, 1935 With subgenus name: binomen

18 L. closterocerca Short: Lecane (M.) closterocerca (Shmarda, 1853) Or (zoology!):

19 Lecane (Monostyla) closterocerca amazonica Koste, 1972 non Murray, 1913 With subspecies name: trinomen

20 L. closterocerca amazonica Koste, 1972 Short: Or (zoology!): L. closterocerca amazonica

21 In botanic nomenclature: Phragmites autralis (Cavanilles) Trinius ex Streudel: Streudel published Trinius’ suggestion

22 Scientific Names are Latin Rules of Latin grammar apply Agreement in gender

23 Scientific Names are Latin Rules of Latin grammar apply Agreement in gender Mastigocerca capucina Wierzejski & Zacharias, 1893 Rattulus capucinus : Jennings, 1903 Trichocerca capucina (Wierzejski & Zacharias, 1893) Harring, 1913

24 Formation of Scientific Names Formation of species names: -After features: adjectives e.g.: -Lepadella minuta -Scaridium grande -S. longicaudum -Brachionus bidentatus -Keratella taurocephala

25 Formation of Scientific Names Formation of species names: -After features: adjectives -After other species: noun in apposition, adjective e.g., Trichocerca tigris, T. rattus, T. cavia, T. mus, T. musculus, T. porcellus, T. orca. also: Seison nebaliae.

26 Formation of Scientific Names Formation of species names: -After features: adjectives -After other species: noun in apposition, adjective -After people: noun in genitive case one man: Lecane shieli or L. ludwigii one woman: Lecane robertsonae several man/woman: L. gallagherorum several woman: stem + arum

27 Formation of Scientific Names Formation of species names: -After features: adjectives -After other species: noun in apposition, adjective -After people: noun in genitive case -After places: adjectival toponym e.g., Lecane papuana Brachionus budapestinensis

28 Formation of Scientific Names Formation of species names: no diacritic or other marks, ligature, apostrophes, etc…: -Trichocerca dixon-nutalli becomes T. dixonnutalli; -Dicranophorus lütkeni becomes D. luetkeni; -Filinia novaezaelandiae; -(ñ becomes n, ø becomes o, …) But - Zygiella x-notata

29 Principle of Typification Type: sole bearer on identity of a name Description, diagnosis,… are required, but irrelevant (for nomenclatural purposes)

30 Types of name-bearing types (in the species group) Original designation (Fixed in the original publication) Subsequent designation (Not fixed in the original publication) Holotype: the single specimen upon which a new species-group taxon is based in the original publication (see also isotype) Paratypes : remaining specimens of the original type series (see also allotype) Syntypes: specimens of a type series that collectively constitute the name- bearing type Hapantotype : (special case) Lectotype: a syntype designated as the single-name bearing type specimen Paralectotypes : each specimen of the former syntype series remaining after lectotype designation (see also isolectotype) Neotype: the single specimen designated as the name-bearing type when no name-bearing type specimen is believed to exist (anymore) Principle of Typification

31 Terms not regulated by the Codes Allotype: a designated specimen of opposite sex of the holotype Cotype : a term formerly used for either syntype or paratype Genotype: a term formerly used to designate the type species of a genus (generotype) Topotype : a specimen originating from the type locality or localities of the species or subspecies to which it is thought to belong, whether or not the specimen is part of the type series (see also topotypical specimen) Some peculiar cases: Cleptotype, Iconotype, … Type of a family name = genus Type of a genus = species Principle of Typification

32 How does it work? Genus Pinus Linnaeus, 1753 (pine trees) Taxonomy: five distinct genera Genus 1 : P. cedrus Genus 2 : P. larix Genus 3 : P. picea, P. balsamea Genus 4 : P. abies Genus 5 : P. sylvestris, P. pinea, P. cembra, P. strobus, P. taeda. Q: Can the real Pinus please stand up?

33 How does it work? Taxonomy: five distinct genera Genus 1 : P. cedrus Genus 2 : P. larix Genus 3 : P. picea, P. balsamea Genus 4 : P. abies Genus 5 : P. sylvestris, P. pinea, P. cembra, P. strobus, P. taeda. 1.Type of Pinus : P. sylvestris. Hence, = (5) 2.Others: new names (Cedrus, Larix, Abies and Picea, respectively).

34 Synonyms and Homonyms Synonyms: 2 or more names = 1 taxon –Nomenclatural (= objective, homotypic) synonyms (e.g., replacement names: nomina nova, …)

35 Synonyms and Homonyms Synonyms: 2 or more names = 1 taxon –Nomenclatural (= objective, homotypic) synonyms –Taxonomic (= subjective, heterotypic) synonyms (most common)

36 Synonyms and Homonyms Synonyms: 2 or more names = 1 taxon –Nomenclatural (= objective, homotypic) synonyms –Taxonomic (= subjective, heterotypic) synonyms Lecane ludwigii (Eckstein, 1883) or Lecane stokesi (Pell, 1890) or Lecane ohioensis (Herrick, 1885) ?

37 Synonyms and Homonyms Synonyms: 2 or more names = 1 taxon Homonyms: 1 name = 2 or more taxa e.g., Argus Bohadsch, 1761(gastropod); Argus Scopoli, 1763 (butterfly); Argus Scopoli, 1777 (butterfly); Argus Poli, 1791 (mollusk); Argus Temminck, 1807 (bird); Argus Lamarck, 1817 (hesperid); Argus Boisduval, 1832 (lycaenid); Argus Walckenaer, 1836 (arachnid); Argus Gray, 1847(mollusk); Argus Gerhard, 1850 (lycaenid))

38 Synonyms and Homonyms Synonyms: 2 or more names = 1 taxon Homonyms: 1 name = 2 or more taxa Lecane ornata (Harring & Myers, 1926) Lecane ornata (Daday, 1897) (syn. of L. ludwigii (Eckstein, 1883))

39 Synonyms and Homonyms Synonyms: 2 or more names = 1 taxon Homonyms: 1 name = 2 or more taxa Lecane ornata (Harring & Myers, 1926) Lecane ornata (Daday, 1897) (syn. of L. ludwigii (Eckstein, 1883)) Problem: name for L. ornata (Harring & Myers, 1926) non (Daday, 1897)?

40 Synonyms and Homonyms Synonyms: 2 or more names = 1 taxon Homonyms: 1 name = 2 or more taxa Who’s right? Principle of Priority: “the oldest fool is always right”

41 Synonyms and Homonyms Synonyms: 2 or more names = 1 taxon Lecane ludwigii (Eckstein, 1883) Lecane stokesi (Pell, 1890) Lecane ohioensis (Herrick, 1885) « Oldest fool »: Lecane ludwigii (Eckstein, 1883)

42 Synonyms and Homonyms Homonyms: 1 name = 2 or more taxa Lecane ornata (Harring & Myers, 1926) Lecane ornata (Daday, 1897) (syn. van L. ludwigii (Eckstein, 1883) Problem: name for L. ornata (Harring & Myers, 1926) non (Daday, 1897)? No “Oldest fool” available! Nomen novum required: Solution: L. myersi Segers, 1993

43 Synonyms and Homonyms Synonyms: 2 or more names = 1 taxon Homonyms: 1 name = 2 or more taxa Who’s right? Principle of Priority: “the oldest fool is always right” But This Can Cause Problems The commission can intervene! (nomina rejicienda, conservanda)

44 Formal requirements in ICZN (1) Name or nomenclatural act must be Published;

45 Formal requirements in ICZN (1) Name or nomenclatural act must be Published; Scientific names must be spelled using the 26 letters of the Latin Alfabet;

46 Formal requirements in ICZN (1) Name or nomenclatural act must be Published; Scientific names must be spelled using the 26 letters of the Latin Alfabet; Consistent application of binominal nomenclature in the work in which the new name or nomenclatural act is published;

47 Formal requirements in ICZN (1) Name or nomenclatural act must be Published; Scientific names must be spelled using the 26 letters of the Latin Alfabet; Consistent application of binominal nomenclature in the work in which the new name or nomenclatural act is published; Derivation: a name may be derived from any language, or even an arbitrary combination of letters if this is formed to be used as a word (not cbafdg); => lots of freedom allowed!

48 Some examples…. One-letter difference: Genus Eucosma (Moths, Northern Mexico: Kearfoot, 1907) E. fandana E. gandana E. handana E. kandana E. mandana E. nandana E. pandana E. randana E. sandana E. tandana E. vandana E. wandana E. xandana E. yandana E. zandana

49 Fun with Latin: Stupidogobius Aurich, 1938 (stupid fish) Localities: Panama canalia Marsh, 1993(braconid) Australia Girault, 1928 (parasitic wasp); Babylonia Schlulter, 1838 (mollusk); Mythology: Zeus Linnaeus, 1758 (fish), Kali Lloyd, 1909 (fish) Satan Hubbs & Bailey, 1947 (fish),… More examples….

50 Persons (“honorifics”): Cartwrightia cartwrighti Cartwright, 1967 (scarab) Hoia hoi (parasitic copepod), after Ju-Shey Ho Leonardo davincii Bleszynski, 1965 (pyralid butterfly) But also: Dyaria Neumoegen, 1893 (liparid butterfly) after Mr. Dyar. Not another one… Cyclocephala nodanotherwon Ratcliffe (scarabid) Trombicula doremi Brennan & Beck, 1955; Trombicula fasola Brennan & Beck, 1955 (mites) Even more examples….

51 Formal requirements in ICZN (2) Names to be used as valid when proposed (no conditional proposal)

52 Formal requirements in ICZN (2) Names to be used as valid when proposed Publication of a name as a synonym does not thereby make the name available;

53 Formal requirements in ICZN (2) Names to be used as valid when proposed Publication of a name as a synonym does not thereby make the name available; New requirements for species-group names published after 1999: –Explicit indication of name as intentionally new (n.sp., gen. nov., nom. nov.,…) –Fixation of name-bearing types explicit designation & deposition

54 The different codes: a comparison

55 1)The codes have different starting dates and works Botanical : Species Plantarum : Linnaeus, Zoological : Systema Naturae : Linnaeus, 1758; Araneae swecici Clerck, 1757,… Bacteriologial : January 1, 1980 (older names only when included in list of approved names)

56 1)The codes have different starting dates and works 2)The codes are independent => inter-code homonyms are possible, allowed, and common The different codes: a comparison

57 Table 1. Inter-Code Generic homonyms Botanical genus names homonyms in Zool. record Total 64,4198,784 (13.6%) in common use 28,0413,554 (12.7%) Bacteriologic al genus names Homonyms in Zool. Record Homonyms in ING (Botanical) Homonyms in both Total (6.8%)29 (3.9%)15 in common use (6.9%)27 (3.9%)14

58 Poria cocos: Coleoptera and Fungus; Pieris japonica: butterfly and plant; Culcita novaeguineae: seastar, and Culcita novae- guineae: fern Examples of genus + species homonoms:

59 Principle of co-ordination: in zoological nomenclature, not in botanical; The different codes: a comparison

60 Principle of co-ordination: Names established at any rank within the F/G/S groups are deemed established at any rank within the group –Family-group: Super-,Family, sub-, Tribus, sub- –Genus-group: Genus, sub- –Species-group: Species, sub- The different codes: a comparison

61 Principle of co-ordination Tautonyms (Bison bison,...) allowed in zoology; The different codes: a comparison

62 Principle of co-ordination Tautonyms Latin diagnosis required in botanical nomenclature The different codes: a comparison

63 Principle of co-ordination Tautonyms Latin diagnosis Application & different standardised endings The different codes: a comparison

64 Table 2: Standardized endings for names of taxa Rank : ZoologicalBotanicalBacteriological phylum/divisio*- phyta/-mycota 1 classis*- opsida/-mycetes 1 / - phyceae² subclassis*- idea/-mycetidae 1 /- phycidae 2 superordo*- anae ordo*- ales subordo*- ineae superfamily- oidea(not used) family- idea- aceae subfamily- inae- oideae tribus- ini- eae subtribus- ina- inae 1 : for fungi; ²: for algae

65 Interesting websites International Code of Botanical Nomenclature : berlin.de/iapt/nomenclature/code/SaintLouis/0000St.Luistitle.htm berlin.de/iapt/nomenclature/code/SaintLouis/0000St.Luistitle.htm International Commission and Code on Zoological Nomenclature : Index Nominum Genericorum (names of genera of plants, fungi and algae : List with suprageneric names : Directory of International Registration Authorities (esp. for cultivars) :

66 Games with letters/statistics: Aa Baker, 1940 (mollusk) Aaadonta Solem, 1976 (endodontoid slug) Cavaticovelia aaa Gagne, 1975 (Hawaiian bug) Aragara Walker, 1860 (fly; longest palindrome) Ia io Thomas, 1902 (bat; shortest binomen) Gammaracanthuskytodermogammarus loricatobaicalensis Dybowski, 1926 (amphipod; the longest binomen) Zyzzyxdonta Solem, 1976 (endodontoid slug, with opposite features of Aaadonta) Zyzzyzus Stechow, 1921 (Coelenterata) Did I mention these ones?

67 Thank you for your attention Merci pour votre attention


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