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A Brief Review of PROCEDURES IN TAXOMONY: PART 1, Type Concepts GEOL 3213.

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Presentation on theme: "A Brief Review of PROCEDURES IN TAXOMONY: PART 1, Type Concepts GEOL 3213."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Brief Review of PROCEDURES IN TAXOMONY: PART 1, Type Concepts GEOL 3213

2 Species & Generic Names Binomenal nomenclature –Based on Latin –Should be Grammatically correct (Boo!) Euphonious Brief Generic names –Genus vs. genera –Can stand alone –Capitalize 1st letter –Italicize or underline

3 Do not use the term "trivial" for the second word Cannot stand alone, as can a generic name Italicize or underline G. menardii if Globoratalia was previously mentioned in a paragraph & it is easily understood, etc. G. cf. G. menardii if not quite sure Kinds or bases of creating names: –Descriptive (preferred) –Geographic –Geologic (not recommended, e. g., age) –Personal (V. rollinsi added i to his name & no capital) –etc. Specific Names

4 TYPES Reference specimens Types for different categories –Species = a specimen(s) –Genera = a species –Family = a genus Type locality = exposure, well, etc., from which came the type material Repository –Safe storage place for posterity –Large major permanent museum is best –Some large universities –Some major research institutes

5 Types for the Specific Category Holotype –Single specimen taken as "the type" specimen (or reference specimen) –The name-bearer –Designated by the original author –Should be Well-preserved Illustrate the maximum number of diagnostic features A typical (normal, common, etc.) specimen A permanent reference specimen (kept in a museum, etc. –If it is unavailable, a substitute must be found & designated by a later author/reviser

6 Types for the Specific Category Paratype(s): –Specimen(s) supplementary to the holotype –Used by the original author to show the range of variation in morphology of a new species –Should show any diagnostic features not seen on the holotype Syntype: –One of several specimens of equal rank upon which a species is based –Not recommended because later workers may select a "lectotype" & possibly shift original species concept of the original author

7 Stopped Here on Friday

8 Types for the Specific Category Lectotype = a specimen, selected from a syntypic series, subsequently to the original description, to serve as a holotype Neotype = a specimen selected to replace a holotype when the primary materials of a species is lost or destroyed Hypotype = a described, figured, or listed specimen Homeotype = a specimen compared, by a competent observer, with the holotype, lectotype, or other primary type material of a species & found to be conspecific with it Topotype = a specimen from the type locality of a species Plastotype = a cast of a type for distribution of facsimiles of rare specimens

9 Types for the Generic Category Type species –The single species upon which a genus is based. –A species, not a single specimen –Do not use the term "genotype" because it is ambiguous (confusion with genetics) Genosyntype = one of several species included within a genus as the time of its proposal if none were designated as a type species by the original author Genolectotype = type species selected by a subsequent author as the type species from the genosyntypes

10 Types for the Family Category Type genus –The genus upon which a family is based


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