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Names, Concepts, Codes and Lots of Confusion Names, Concepts, Codes and Lots of Confusion An Introduction to Taxonomic Names of Organisms An Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "Names, Concepts, Codes and Lots of Confusion Names, Concepts, Codes and Lots of Confusion An Introduction to Taxonomic Names of Organisms An Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Names, Concepts, Codes and Lots of Confusion Names, Concepts, Codes and Lots of Confusion An Introduction to Taxonomic Names of Organisms An Introduction to Taxonomic Names of Organisms Richard L. Pyle Bishop Museum, Honolulu Taxonomic Databases Working Group Fremantle, 19 October 2008 Richard L. Pyle Bishop Museum, Honolulu Taxonomic Databases Working Group Fremantle, 19 October 2008

2 Taxonomy is... “The perpetual re-classification of mis-named species.” “A necessary evil.” - Randall Kosaki

3 Images: Biodiversity Heritage Library

4 Image: Wikimedia Commons Carolus Linnaeus Carolus Linnaeus Image: Biodiversity Heritage Library

5 Codes of Nomenclature Governs scientific names of animals First established in 1895 Fixes 1 January 1758 as official start (Linnaeus’ Systema Naturae) Governed by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) Managed by a Secretariat Updated as needed (currently 4 th Edition; 5 th Edition in early drafting stage) Governs scientific names of animals First established in 1895 Fixes 1 January 1758 as official start (Linnaeus’ Systema Naturae) Governed by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) Managed by a Secretariat Updated as needed (currently 4 th Edition; 5 th Edition in early drafting stage) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Governs scientific names of plants and fungi First established in 1867, and formalized in 1930 Fixes 1 May 1753 as official start (Linnaeus’ Species Plantarum) Governed by the International Botanical Congress (IBC) Managed by the International Association for Plant Taxonomy Updated every 6 years at the IBC (currently 2006 Vienna Code; next edition 2011) Governs scientific names of plants and fungi First established in 1867, and formalized in 1930 Fixes 1 May 1753 as official start (Linnaeus’ Species Plantarum) Governed by the International Botanical Congress (IBC) Managed by the International Association for Plant Taxonomy Updated every 6 years at the IBC (currently 2006 Vienna Code; next edition 2011) International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB) International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Governs scientific names of bacteria Initial bacteriological code in 1947 discarded, and ICNB established in 1980 Fixes 1 January 1980 as official start Governed by the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP) Governs scientific names of bacteria Initial bacteriological code in 1947 discarded, and ICNB established in 1980 Fixes 1 January 1980 as official start Governed by the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP) International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) International Society for Phylogenetic Nomenclature (ISPN)

6 Why all the Fuss? Better Communication! Multiple Names for the Same Organism (Synonyms) Pomacanthus imperator Holacanthus bishopi

7 Why all the Fuss? Better Communication! Multiple Names for the Same Organism (Synonyms) Same Name for Multiple Organisms (Homonyms) Pomacanthus imperator = Holacanthus bishopi Pomacanthus imperator = Holacanthus bishopi Centropyge flavissima

8 Why all the Fuss? Better Communication! Multiple Names for the Same Organism (Synonyms) Same Name for Multiple Organisms (Homonyms) Pomacanthus imperator = Holacanthus bishopi Pomacanthus imperator = Holacanthus bishopi Centropyge flavissima Centropyge heraldi = Centropyge flavissima Centropyge heraldi = Centropyge flavissima

9 What’s In a Name? Anthias Pseudanthias Anthias (Pseudanthias) Anthias ventralis Anthias hawaiiensis Anthias (Pseudanthias) ventralis Anthias (Pseudanthias) hawaiiensis Pseudanthias ventralis Pseudanthias hawaiiensis Pseudanthias ventralis ventralis Pseudanthias ventralis hawaiiensis Pseudanthias (Pseudanthias) ventralis ventralis Pseudanthias (Pseudanthias) ventralis hawaiiensis Anthias Pseudanthias Anthias (Pseudanthias) Anthias ventralis Anthias hawaiiensis Anthias (Pseudanthias) ventralis Anthias (Pseudanthias) hawaiiensis Pseudanthias ventralis Pseudanthias hawaiiensis Pseudanthias ventralis ventralis Pseudanthias ventralis hawaiiensis Pseudanthias (Pseudanthias) ventralis ventralis Pseudanthias (Pseudanthias) ventralis hawaiiensis “Name” as Text String: 13 “Name” sensu Zoology: 4 Anthias Pseudanthias ventralis hawaiiensis Anthias Pseudanthias ventralis hawaiiensis What Is a Name? “Name” sensu Botany: 9

10 The Concept of Authorship Anthias ventralis Randall 1979 Anthias hawaiiensis Lubbock 1985 Anthias ventralis Randall 1979 Anthias hawaiiensis Lubbock 1985 Pseudanthias ventralis (Randall 1979) Pseudanthias hawaiiensis (Lubbock 1985) Pseudanthias ventralis (Randall 1979) Pseudanthias hawaiiensis (Lubbock 1985) In Zoology: Anthias ventralis Rand. Anthias hawaiiensis Lub. Anthias ventralis Rand. Anthias hawaiiensis Lub. Pseudanthias ventralis (Rand.) R.Pyle Pseudanthias hawaiiensis (Lub.) R.Pyle Pseudanthias ventralis (Rand.) R.Pyle Pseudanthias hawaiiensis (Lub.) R.Pyle In Botany: Anthias ventralis Randall 1979 ex Thompson Anthias ventralis Thomp. ex Rand.

11 Infraspecifc Ranks Anthias ventralis Randall 1979 Anthias hawaiiensis Lubbock 1985 Anthias ventralis Randall 1979 Anthias hawaiiensis Lubbock 1985 Pseudanthias ventralis (Randall 1979) Pseudanthias hawaiiensis (Lubbock 1985) Pseudanthias ventralis (Randall 1979) Pseudanthias hawaiiensis (Lubbock 1985) In Zoology: Anthias ventralis Rand. Anthias hawaiiensis Lub. Anthias ventralis Rand. Anthias hawaiiensis Lub. Pseudanthias ventralis (Rand.) R.Pyle Pseudanthias hawaiiensis (Lub.) R.Pyle Pseudanthias ventralis (Rand.) R.Pyle Pseudanthias hawaiiensis (Lub.) R.Pyle In Botany: Anthias ventralis Randall 1979 ex Thompson 1950 Anthias ventralis Thomp. ex Rand. Anthias ventralis hawaiiensis Lubbock 1985 Anthias ventralis subsp. hawaiiensis (Lub.) J.Smith Anthias ventralis var. hawaiiensis (Lub.) B.Jones Anthias ventralis subsp. hawaiiensis var. typus (Br.) Rand. Anthias ventralis subsp. typus (Br.) R.Pyle Anthias hawaiiensis subsp. typus (L.) R.Pyle Anthias ventralis subsp. hawaiiensis (Lub.) J.Smith Anthias ventralis var. hawaiiensis (Lub.) B.Jones Anthias ventralis subsp. hawaiiensis var. typus (Br.) Rand. Anthias ventralis subsp. typus (Br.) R.Pyle Anthias hawaiiensis subsp. typus (L.) R.Pyle

12 The Concept of Basionym Anthias ventralis Randall 1979 Anthias hawaiiensis Lubbock 1985 Anthias ventralis Randall 1979 Anthias hawaiiensis Lubbock 1985 Pseudanthias ventralis (Randall 1979) Pseudanthias hawaiiensis (Lubbock 1985) Pseudanthias ventralis (Randall 1979) Pseudanthias hawaiiensis (Lubbock 1985) In Zoology: Anthias ventralis Rand. Anthias hawaiiensis Lub. Anthias ventralis Rand. Anthias hawaiiensis Lub. Pseudanthias ventralis (Rand.) R.Pyle Pseudanthias hawaiiensis (Lub.) R.Pyle Pseudanthias ventralis (Rand.) R.Pyle Pseudanthias hawaiiensis (Lub.) R.Pyle In Botany:

13 More Confusing Differences “Available” In Zoology: Anthias ventralis Randall 1979 = Anthias hawaiiensis Lubbock 1985 Anthias ventralis Randall 1979 = Anthias hawaiiensis Lubbock 1985 Pseudanthias ventralis (Rand.) R.Pyle = Anthias ventralis Rand. = Anthias hawaiiensis Lub. Pseudanthias ventralis (Rand.) R.Pyle = Anthias ventralis Rand. = Anthias hawaiiensis Lub. In Botany: “Validly Published” “Valid” “Correct Name” “Junior Synonym” “Senior Synonym” “Homotypic Synonym” “Heteroptypic Synonym”

14 The World of Taxonomy The Real World The World of Taxonomy The Real World Holacanthus fisheri Snyder 1904 SEC Snyder 1904 Holacanthus fisheri Snyder 1904 HOLOTYPE: USNM Holacanthus fisheri Snyder 1904 HOLOTYPE: USNM 50881

15 Holacanthus acanthops Norman 1922 SEC Norman 1922 Holacanthus fisheri Snyder 1904 HOLOTYPE: USNM Holacanthus fisheri Snyder 1904 HOLOTYPE: USNM Holacanthus acanthops Norman 1922 HOLOTYPE: BMNH Holacanthus acanthops Norman 1922 HOLOTYPE: BMNH

16 Xiphypops fisheri (Snyder 1904) SEC Jordan 1922 = Holacanthus fisheri Snyder 1904 SEC Snyder 1904 Xiphypops Jordan 1922 TYPE SPECIES: Holacanthus fisheri Snyder 1904 Xiphypops Jordan 1922 TYPE SPECIES: Holacanthus fisheri Snyder 1904 Holacanthus fisheri Snyder 1904 HOLOTYPE: USNM Holacanthus fisheri Snyder 1904 HOLOTYPE: USNM Xiphypops fisheri (Snyder 1904) Holacanthus acanthops Norman 1922 HOLOTYPE: BMNH Holacanthus acanthops Norman 1922 HOLOTYPE: BMNH

17 Holacanthus fisheri Snyder 1904 HOLOTYPE: USNM Holacanthus fisheri Snyder 1904 HOLOTYPE: USNM Holacanthus acanthops Norman 1922 HOLOTYPE: BMNH Holacanthus acanthops Norman 1922 HOLOTYPE: BMNH Centropyge flavicauda Fraser-Brunner 1933 HOLOTYPE: BMNH Centropyge flavicauda Fraser-Brunner 1933 HOLOTYPE: BMNH Xiphypops fisheri (Snyder 1904) Centropyge acanthops (Norman 1922) Centropyge fisheri (Snyder 1904) Centropyge flavicauda Fraser-Brunner 1933 SEC Fraser-Brunner 1933 Centropyge fisheri (Snyder 1904) SEC Fraser-Brunner 1933 = Holacanthus fisheri Snyder 1904 SEC Snyder 1904 = Xiphypops fisheri (Snyder 1904) SEC Jordan 1922 Centropyge acanthops (Norman 1922) SEC Fraser-Brunner 1933 = Holacanthus acanthops Norman 1922 SEC Norman 1922

18 Holacanthus fisheri Snyder 1904 HOLOTYPE: USNM Holacanthus fisheri Snyder 1904 HOLOTYPE: USNM Holacanthus acanthops Norman 1922 HOLOTYPE: BMNH Holacanthus acanthops Norman 1922 HOLOTYPE: BMNH Centropyge flavicauda Fraser-Brunner 1933 HOLOTYPE: BMNH Centropyge flavicauda Fraser-Brunner 1933 HOLOTYPE: BMNH Xiphypops fisheri (Snyder 1904) Centropyge acanthops (Norman 1922) Centropyge fisheri (Snyder 1904) Centropyge fisheri (Snyder 1904) SEC Pyle 2003 > Holacanthus fisheri Snyder 1904 SEC Snyder 1904 > Xiphypops fisheri (Snyder 1904) SEC Jordan 1922 > Centropyge fisheri (Snyder 1904) SEC Fraser-Brunner 1933 > Centropyge flavicauda Fraser-Brunner 1933 SEC Fraser-Brunner 1933 = Centropyge fisheri (Snyder 1904) SEC Fraser-Brunner Centropyge flavicauda Fraser-Brunner 1933 SEC Fraser-Brunner 1933 Centropyge acanthops (Norman 1922) SEC Pyle 2003 = Holacanthus acanthops Norman 1922 SEC Norman 1922 = Centropyge acanthops (Norman 1922) SEC Fraser-Brunner 1933

19 CatIDFamilyGenusSpeciesAuthorDet.Det. DateCollectoretc LabridaeCorisgaimardSmithRandall Basabe 4321ScaridaeScarussordidusJonesPyle Tanaka 5678SerranidaeAnthiasventralisBrownSuzumoto Jones 8675DasyatidaeDasyatislataLinnaeusBowen Jordan 3210LabridaeCorisgaimardSmithJER Basabe 3456ScaridaeScarussordidusJonesPyle Tanaka 9876SerranidaeAnthiasventralisLubbockCulp Earle 6789DasyatidaeDasyatislatusL.Ohara Evermann NameIDFamilyGenusSpeciesAuthor 12121LabridaeCorisgaimardSmith 98989ScaridaeScarussordidusJones 45454SerranidaeAnthiasventralisBrown 23232DasyatidaeDasyatislataLinnaeus Specimen Database Taxon Names and Databases Taxon Name Authority

20 CatIDNameIDDet.Det. DateCollectoretc Randall Basabe Pyle Tanaka Suzumoto Jones Bowen Jordan JER Basabe Pyle Tanaka Culp Earle Ohara Evermann NameIDFamilyGenusSpeciesAuthor 12121LabridaeCorisgaimardSmith 98989ScaridaeScarussordidusJones 45454SerranidaeAnthiasventralisBrown 23232DasyatidaeDasyatislataLinnaeus Specimen Database Taxon Name Authority Taxon Names and Databases

21 CatIDCollectoretc Basabe 4321Tanaka 5678Jones 8675Jordan 3210Basabe 3456Tanaka 9876Earle 6789Evermann NameIDFamilyGenusSpeciesAuthor 12121LabridaeCorisgaimardSmith 98989ScaridaeScarussordidusJones 45454SerranidaeAnthiasventralisBrown 23232DasyatidaeDasyatislataLinnaeus Specimen Database Taxon Name Authority CatIDDet.Det. DateNameID 1234Randall Pyle Suzumoto Bowen Randall Pyle Determination Taxon Names and Databases

22 Publications Taxon Concepts Taxon Names 1 Snyder Norman Jordan 1922 PID Citation CID NID PID Full Name Holacanthus fisheri Snyder fisheri Snyder NID NameElement Holacanthus acanthops Norman acanthops Norman Xiphypops fisheri Snyder Fra.-Br flavicauda Fra.-Br Centropyge flavicauda Fra.-Br Centropyge fisheri (Snyder 1904) Centropyge acanthops (Norman 1922) 5 Shen caudoxanthourus Shen Centropyge caudoxanthourus Shen Allen Centropyge flavicauda Fra.-Br =Centropyge caudoxanthourus Shen Smith Centropyge flavicauda Fra.-Br Pyle Centropyge fisheri (Snyder 1904) =Centropyge flavicauda Fra.-Br =Centropyge caudoxanthourus Shen Centropyge acanthops (Norman 1922) 9 Schindler, Centropyge fisheri (Snyder 1904) fisheri caudoxanthorus flavicauda acanthops

23 CatIDCollectoretc Basabe 4321Tanaka 5678Jones 8675Jordan 3210Basabe 3456Tanaka 9876Earle 6789Evermann Specimen Database Specimen Database Taxon Concept Authority CatIDDet.Det. DateConceptID 1234Randall Pyle Suzumoto Bowen Randall Pyle Determination ConceptIDParentIDPubIDRankNameStringetc FamilyLabridae Linnaeus SEC Lacépède FamilyScaridae Linnaeus SEC Lacépède FamilySerranidae Lacépède SEC Lacépède FamilyDasyatidae Lacépède SEC Lacépède GenusCoris Linnaeus SEC Linnaeus GenusScarus Linnaeus SEC Linnaeus GenusAnthias Linnaeus SEC Linnaeus GenusDasyatis Linnaeus SEC Linnaeus SpeciesCoris gaimard Smith SEC Smith SpeciesScarus sordidus Jones SEC Randall SpeciesAnthias ventralis Brown SEC Pyle SpeciesDasyatis lata Linnaeus SEC Pyle PubIDAuthorYearTitleetc Linnaeus1758Systema Naturae per regna tria Lacépède1802Histoire naturelle des poissons Randall1978A revision of the labroid fishes Pyle2003Systematics and biogeography Brown1952A new species of basslet in the Jones1967Parrotfishes of the western Indian Smith2000Phylogenetic analysis of the... Publication Authority

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