2PersonalityThe sum total of behaviors, attitudes, beliefs and values that are characteristic of an individualNature vs. Nurture debateThe sociobiologist argument: emphasizes the nature point of view. Biology is the basis of all social behavior. HEREDITY is the transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to children. An INSTINCT is biologically inherited trait.The nurture argument is that personality is the result of one’s social environment and learning.
3that Shape Individual Personality Development Heredity:inherited characteristics, biologicaldrives, limitsBirth order:Number of siblings and order of birthFactorsthat Shape Individual Personality DevelopmentCultural environment: basic personality types found ina societyParents:parental characteristics
4HereditySome characteristics are present at birth: hair color, eye color, pigmentAptitude is the capacity to learn a particular skill or body of knowledge; music, artSome develop only because of environmental factors such as encouragement; verbal aptitude encouraged by reading to develop innate talent of childCan limit an individual
5Birth Order Personality is influenced by birth order Research has shown first born children are more likely to be achievement oriented and responsible than later children, tend to be more conservative in thinking.Later born children are better in social relationships and tend to be more affectionate, more risk taking and social and intellectual rebels
6Parental Characteristics Age of parents changes how they relate to childrenLevel of education, religious orientation, economic status, cultural heritage, and occupational background
7Cultural EnvironmentAmerican traits of competitiveness, individualism affect American childrenBoys and girls experience different cultures affecting developmentEthnicity of familyNeighborhood-rural vs. urban, regional differences
8Isolation in Childhood Book case studies prove need for social interaction for developmentAnna kept alone in isolationIsabelle kept alone with motherGenie never developsInstitutionalization further proves need for caring environment for development. Necessary for forming attachments.
9The Social Self How does a person’s sense of self emerge? The interactive process through which people learn the basic skills, values, beliefs and behavior patterns of a society is called SOCIALIZATIONYour SELF is your conscious awareness of possessing a distinct identity that separates you and your environment from other members of society.
10Locke; The Tabula RasaJohn Locke, English philosopher, insisted that each newly born human being is a tabula rasa, or blank slate, on which anything can be writtenWe acquire our personalities as we developSocialization is a process by which individuals absorb the aspects of their culture with which they come in contact
11Cooley: The Looking Glass Self Charles Horton Cooley, an interactionistThe interactive process by which we develop an image of ourselves based on how we imagine we appear to others.Three step process:1.we imagine how we appear to others2.based on their reactions to us, we determine whether others view us as we view ourselves3.we use our perceptions of how others judge us to develop feelings about ourselves.
12Mead: Role-Taking George Herbert Mead, interactionist Seeing ourselves as others do is only the beginningEventually we begin to take on the roles of others. Allows us to anticipate what others expect of us.1. we internalize the expectations of those closest to us (significant others)2.expectations of society guide behavior3. we have internalized self and the generalized other
13Process of Socialization Theory NameProcess of Socialization TheoryThe Tabula Rasa: Each person is a blank slate at birth, with no personality. People develop personality as a result of their social experiences. Moreover, infants can be molded into any type of person.John LockeCharles Horton CooleyGeorge Herbert MeadThe Looking-Glass Self: Infants have no sense of person or place. Children develop an image of themselves based on how others see them. Other people act as a mirror, reflecting back the image a child projects through their reactions to the child’s behavior.Role-Taking: People not only come to see themselves as others see them, but also take on or pretend to take on the roles of others through imitation, play, and games. This process enables people to anticipate what others expect of them.
14Born with no sense of self, begins development about age 3 Begin to play role games, attempt to see world through other’s eyesOrganized games come later where have to anticipate actions of othersSelf consists of the “I” the unsocialized, spontaneous, self-interested component of personality, and the “ME”- the part which is aware of the expectations and attitudes of society-the socialized self.
15Agents of Socialization Specific individuals, groups, and institutions that enable socialization to take place
16The Family The most important agent in every society. Principle socializer or young children.Where learn values, norms, and beliefs of the society and pattern for future interactions.Can be deliberate or unintended. Be polite vs. watch behavior of parents.Not all families the same, members of subgroups influence, large cultural patterns with individual differences
17The Peer GroupPrimary group of individuals about the same age and similar social characteristics.Particularly influential pre-teen and teen years.Very influenced by the looking glass self concept, want to fit in.Often values at odds with the larger culture, parents become alarmed if these values seem to become more important than family or larger cultural norms.
18The School Mandatory school attendance. Much of this socialization is deliberate, teaching reading, civics, responsibility.Unintentional socialization plays great part of school day with role models and peer groups.
19The Mass MediaNo face to face interaction but still strong cultural influence.Books, films, magazines, the internet, radio, tv, music.98% American homes have TVs, average child watches 28 hours a week.Average American child spends almost twice as much time watching TV as they spend in school.
20TV effects Lots of research examining the effects of TV. By age 18, children will have witnessed 200,000 fictional acts of violence, including 16,000 murders.Does this encourage violence?Image of white, middle class America, with these values predominant.Educational tool-expand world and culture.
21ResocializationA TOTAL INSTITUTION is a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and are subject to tight control.Prisons, military boot camp, monasteries, mental hospitalsResocialization involves a break from past experiences and learning new norms and valuesWeaken individual identity in order to rebuild it.