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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 SOCIALIZING THE INDIVIDUAL"— Presentation transcript:

Section 1: Personality Development

2 What is personality? Social skills? Social appeal?
Popularity? Or lack thereof? To Social Scientists personality is “the sum total of behaviors, attitudes, beliefs and values that are characteristic of an individual.” No two personalities are exactly alike…

3 NATURE vs NURTURE debate…
THE CASE FOR “NATURE”…Some Sociologists believe it is heredity that determines personality & social behavior (heredity – the transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to children.”) The “nature” stand says that much of human behavior is instinctual (an unchanging, biological inherited trait) and this instinct drives personality development. “Sociobiology” theorists emphasized the nature viewpoint, arguing that most human social life is determined by biological factors.

The case for “NURTURE”… this theory states that a person’s behavior & personality are the result of his or her social environment & learning. Scientist Ivan Pavlov found that certain behaviors thought to be instinctive could actually be taught. Most sociologists reject the nature AND nurture theories as singular explanations & instead believe that personality results from blending hereditary & **environmental influences .

5 Factors Social scientists see as key to personality development…
HEREDITY BIRTH ORDER PARENTS CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT Heredity: certain characteristics are present at birth & they include certain aptitudes (capacity to learn a skill).

6 Factors that determine personality
Heredity: Example: a musically talented child born to 2 musician parents (the child has the aptitude innately; the parents & home environment help to develop it). Aptitude (capacity to learn) a particular skill is also believed to be hereditary (ex: athleticism; talent for music &/or art) BIRTH ORDER: whether we have siblings or not impacts personality development. Only children, first borns, middle children, last borns (the “babies”) and later borns all share certain personality characteristics.

7 Factors that determine personality…
PARENTAL CHARACTERISTICS: parental personalities influence the development of their children’s personalities. The age of parents, their education level, religious beliefs, cultural heritage, economic status, & occupation – all influence the types of personalities their children will develop. What parental characteristics have shaped your personality??

8 Cultural Environment…
Different cultures tend to give rise to specific personality traits. Each culture has a “model personality” – for example most Americans are competitive, assertive, and a strong sense of individualism. (In Japan, individualism is discouraged…) Cultural attitudes regarding gender also influence personality development.

9 Some very different ideas & influences …
IK children of Uganda…thrown out of homes at age 3? Parents don’t help kids & kids don’t help aging parents? Survival of the fittest! Extreme negative effect of isolation in childhood – feral children (wild/untamed children) Anna & Isabelle; Genie – some times the effects of prolonged isolation cannot be reversed (video) Institutionalization children often share characteristics of isolated children (failure to thrive, very slow mental, physical & emotional skill development)

10 How about your own personality?
Create your own personality development profile…use this T-chart set up, give it some thought and complete the chart… NATURE NURTURE | Heredity parents/cultural inf.


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